Social and political connections between Kazakhstan and Turkey start from the Soviet period. On December 16-18, 1986 in Almaty the students of higher educational institutions went out on protest after unfair decision, and then the Soviet authorities punished them cruelly. 10 thousand young people were deducted from their universities. Turkey was the first country, that expressedits protest to this cruel decision of the Soviet Union. After it the world community started lookingcritically at the domestic policy of the Soviet government.
In March, 1992 Turkey became one of the first states, that officially confirmed mutual relations with Kazakhstan (Dyussen К., 2017). This incomparable act of Turkey, helped to a quite young country Kazakhstan to become knowable at the international level, to define the foreign policy with other countries and pawn basis for diplomatic relations. And soon, on March 2, 1992 the diplomatic relations between Kazakhstan and Turkey were set, and the Embassy of the Republic of Turkey was opened first in Almaty. It certainly was setting of official diplomatic relations (Musa S., 2012). In 2017 it was a 25-year anniversary of the diplomatic relations between Turkey and Kazakhstan. As a result of official visits of the President of Turkey Turgut Uzalin 1993, and the President of Kazakhstan NursultanNazarbayevin 1994,the economic, political and ethno-culture connections began to broaden. Intergovernmental agreements between Astana and Ankara, on that the packages of important diplomatic connections were signed, which gave an opportunity to develop.
Due to signing of intergovernmental agreements between Kazakhstan and Turkeythe basiswas builtfor cooperationin different spheres. Simultaneously with the increase of political collaboration between Turkey and Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan became one of major political and economic partners of Turkey in Eurasia. Relations between the two countries increase every year. An e important role in this process belongs to the active foreign policy of Kazakhstan and confession of Security of the UNO Council.
On the whole, by their capital and technology providing the foreign investors of any country bring in a considerable contribution to development. Many Turkish companies in Kazakhstan carried out large-scale investments directed at producing goods and services.Turkish companies the actively financed infrastructure, transport, telecommunication, food, light and pharmaceutical, building materials, metallurgy oil and gas and chemical industries. As a result to date volume of investments in the economy of Kazakhstan Turkey is included in the first nine. In projects on transporting of oil and oil products through territory of Turkey help go to the world market. In 2005 of oil and gas on transporting of products from Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, uniting the states of "Baku-Tbilisi-Jeihan the route of "Aktau-Baku-Tbilisy-Jeihan" on a project joined Kazakhstan. A collaboration develops in the field of investments. From data of the National bank of РК, from 1993 for 2009 the inflow of direct investments to Kazakhstan exceeded 838 million dollars. In 2006 in party "Eximbank Kazakhstan" for 240 millions a dollar opened a credit line in a size, including 55,7 million dollars on financing of trade, 184 million dollars, invested projects used up on development. In addition, Turkish businessmen open shopping centers, hotels, motor-car business and education institutions bringing considerable financial means (DusembekovaJ.K.,2013). The Turkish companies in the field of building and experience with technology were sharing their specialists with Kazakhstan. Among the number of the large objects it is possible to notice theAstana airport, Parliamentbuilding, Residence of the President of the Republci of Kazakhstan, "Regent Ankara" and "Okan Intercontinental Astana" hotels, National Museum, Hodzha Akhmet Yassaui University and others.
According to data of agency of RK on statistics, the volume of bilateral trade between Kazakhstan and Turkey on results 2011 made 3,303 milliard dollars (an export is 2,574 milliard dollars., import are 729 milliard dollars).
The Republic of Turkey is one of the most important partners of Kazakhstan, not only economic relations but also the deepening of common history and culture. Following the independence of Kazakhstan, the two countries signed an agreement on celebrating holidays and cultural days. Days of Culture of Turkey and Kazakhstan were held in 1995-1996. Turkey welcomed the anniversary of poets and writers of the Kazakh people. The jubilees "Abai's 150th anniversary", "150th anniversary of Zhambyl Zhabayev" were widely celebrated.
For the first time, Abai's works were translated and published in Turkish (translated into Turkish by Abai's selected works in 1995 in 200 thousand circulationin two languages in Ankara). The Kazakh-Turkish community in the cultural and humanitarian sphere has been successfully developed. The Yassaui International Kazakh-Turkish University in Turkestan city became the most advanced educational project. For the development of this institution, the Turkish government has allocated totally $ 60 million.
Today, IKTU is a strong modern educational institution, which has 15 thousand students' educational and methodical base.
Many students and post-graduate students of Kazakhstan are studying at the universities of Turkey on a free basis. In turn, 26 Kazakh-Turkish lyceums, which opened in 1998 in Kazakhstan, were funded by Turkish entrepreneurs. Demirel has a private university. At present, more than 700 Turkish citizens are studying in Kazakhstan and dozens of Turkish teachers are working.
Turkey and Kazakhstan have common goals on global and regional issues. Their positions in international organizationsare the same. The status of the two countries was determined by the Strategic Partnership Agreement signed during Nazarbayev’s visit to Turkey in 2009. Thus, relations between the two countries have grown to the level of "strategic partnership", as well as fraternity.
Today, in Turkey, Nazarbaevis called "Kazakh Ataturk". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's place in Turkish society is very high. Among the Turkish people, Nazarbayev has a reputation as a leader of the Turkic-speaking countries and he is very respectful. The monument to the Head of State, which is in front of the Ankara City Hall, is a clear proof of this. In order to further strengthen the cooperation between Kazakhstan and Turkey, a monument to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was opened in Astana in 2009.
President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev According "We are a Turkic-speaking state and we will make every effort to strengthen relations with the Turkic-speaking countries" (Nazarbayev N.A., 1996). There is a one-sided approach and a joint step towards the development of Turkic-speaking states cooperation between Kazakhstan and Turkey. As a result, in the capital of Turkey, Ankara, such countries as Turkey, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, etc., established TURKSOY International Organization in 1993 with the cooperation of Turkic-speaking states (Tayjan B.,2017). Establishment of TURKSOY society has become the only international organization which has great influence on development of cultural relations of Turkic countries. It has led to the revival of the original culture of the Turkic peoples, especially in the Soviet Union. At each of its sessions, significant tasks have been set and concrete measures have been taken in this area. Organization goals:
- Striving for mutual understanding between the Turks and the Turkic-speaking nations;
- The need for the development and prosperity of the culture and art of the Turkic peoples;
- Preservation of national culture and friendly relations for future generations;
- Development and promotion of Turkic culture on a world scale.
At the same time, the two countries are cooperating in the important international organizations. In particular, the Republic of Turkey supported Kazakhstan in 2010, when our country chaired the OSCE. Turkey prioritizes military-political issues in the region during the presidency of 2010 in the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) initiated by Kazakhstan(Turkey and modern problems of regional economic integration, 1998).
In March 2018, another public organization, the Blue Flag Kazakh Culture Association officially started its work in Ankara. Its foundersare young Kazakh specialists living in the Republic of Turkey. The main activities of the organization are promotion of Kazakh language, culture in other countries, development of relations with state and public organizations of Kazakhstan. This form of culture, history, literature and language information about the country is now widely used in the world. For example, since 2004, China has opened 500 Confucius Schools in 106 countries. This Chinese project has become a worldwide brand.
The future of the Kazakh-Turkish relations will be developing through peaceful negotiations, such as the relationship with all other powers.
Thus, the stable nature of the relations between the two countries is a good example of successful cooperation, with particular emphasis on mutually beneficial cooperation. Kazakhstan and Turkey are interested in further cooperation and strategic partnership within the framework of global and regional organizations.
Dyussen К. 25th anniversary of diplomatic relations between Kazakhstan and Turkey // Aikyn. - 2017. - March 11. - No. 53. - 4 p.
Dusembekova J.K. Dynamics of development of the Kazakh-Turkish relations at the present stage // Vestnik KazNU. - 2013.- №5. - P.32-36.
Musa S. Kazakhstan-Turkey: countries of a strategic partner // Real Kazakhstan. 2012. - 10 October.
Mustafina M., Open time // Liter. - 2018. - March 27th.
Nazarbayev N.A. Twenty first century. - Almaty: “Art”, 1996.
TayjanB. TURKSOY - Farewell Founder // Egemen Kazakhstan. - 2017. - December 7th.
Turkey and modern problems of regional economic integration. - Middle East and modern times. Digest of articles. Release five. - M., 1998. - P. 47
Ж.Т. ТАҢАТАРОВА, т.ғ.д., профессор
С.А. МАРАТОВА, 2 курс магистранты, Х. Досмұхамедов атындағы Атырау мемлекеттік университеті
ҚАЗАҚСТАН МЕН ТҮРКИЯ АРАСЫНДАҒЫ ҚОҒАМДЫҚ-САЯСИ ЖӘНЕ МӘДЕНИ-ТАРИХИ ҚАТЫНАСТАР (ТӘУЕЛСІЗДІК ЖЫЛДАРЫ)
Мақалада Қазақстан мен Түрки я арасындағы мәдени-тарихи байланыстар қарастырылады. Түркия Қазақстан тәуелсіздігін бірінші таныған мемлекет. Түркия Президенті Тұрғұт Озалдың Қазақстанға ресми сапары 1993 ж. болды, Қазақстан Президенті Н.Ә. Назарбаев 1994 ж. ресми сапары болды. Осыдан кейін екі ел арасында экономикалық, саяси және этномәдени байланыстар басталды.
Астана мен Анкара арасында маңызды дипломатиялық құжатқа қол қойылды. 2017 ж. Түркия мен Қазақстан арасындағы дипломатиялық қатынастың 25 жылдығы атап өтілді.
Түйін сөздер: Түркия, Қазақстан, дипломатиялық қатынастар, Астана, Анкара.
Ж.Т. ТАНАТАРОВА, д.и.н., профессор,
С.А. МАРАТОВА, магистрант 2 курса Атырауского государственного университета им. Х. Досмухамедова
ОБЩЕСТВЕННО-ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЕ И КУЛЬТУРНО-ИСТОРИЧЕСКИЕ ОТНОШЕНИЯ МЕЖДУ КАЗАХСТАНОМ И ТУРЦИЕЙ
(В ГОДЫ НЕЗАВИСИМОСТИ)
В статье рассматривается культурно-исторические связи между Казахстаном и Турцией. Турция первым признала независимость Казахстана. Официальный визит президента Турции Тургут Озала состоялся в 1993 г., президента Казахстана Н.А. Назарбаева в 1994 г. После этих визитов начались экономические, политические и этнокультурные связи между странами.
Межправительственные соглашения между Астаной и Анкарой были подписаны важный дипломатический документ. В 2017 г. отмечали 25-летие дипломатических отношений между Турцией и Казахстаном.
Ключевые слова: Турция, Казахстан, дипломатические отношения, Астана, Анкара.