Kazakhstan and Russia have been developing their relations since 1991. During this time, a qualitative legislative and legal basis has emerged in the main areas of multilateral cooperation. Both countries have similar positions on many issues of international relations. The relevance of the research we have chosen is due to the fact that Kazakhstan and Russia are market economy countries that attract foreign direct investment.
We used the method of analysis and comparison, due to the study of various aspects of bilateral relations. In this regard, we analyzed the formation of contacts between Kazakhstan and Russia. This paper attempts to identify the main areas of study of multilateral cooperation between two countries. This article analyzes the research of Kazakh and Russian authors over the past 3 years, published in scientific journals.
Cooperation is based on agreements. The main ones include the intergovernmental agreements (1995, 1999, 2010) the Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on cooperation between the border areas of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan .
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on cross-border cooperation regions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan for 1999–2007.
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on interregional and cross-border cooperation. The governments of both countries have developed cooperation programs under these agreements. The partnership of both countries in the energy sector is determined by the “Agreement on measures to ensure the parallel operation of the power systems of Russia and Kazakhstan”
It is worth mentioning that Russia and Kazakhstan are demonstrating one of the most successful examples of economic integration in the post-Soviet space. The most significant are the following projects: KazRosGaz is a joint venture of Gazprom and its Kazakhstan counterpart KazMunaiGaz; Orenburggazprom LLC, which is a subsidiary of Gazprom and is investing huge investment flows in the oil industry. The article by Kazakhstan authors “The Role of Effective Economic Integration of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the EAEU” considers the role of effective economic integration of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Eurasian Economic Community. The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the leaders and an active consistent organizer of integration processes.
The strategic objectives of the economy of Kazakhstan are the development of domestic high-tech production, the development and adoption of new information technologies aimed at obtaining competitive products and ensuring the interests of national economic security through the preservation and development of the industrial and scientific and technical potential of the republic. The availability of natural resources, scientific potential, and skilled labor characterizes the Republic of Kazakhstan as a fully competitive country in the economic integration processes of the EAEU countries.
In the article, the authors analyze the trade and economic relations of Kazakhstan with Russia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, which are gaining positive momentum in recent times. The leaders of the post-Soviet states combine economic and resource capabilities, based, among other things, on Soviet experience, without the slightest threat of losing sovereignty. In addition, others are interested in the association. large countries of the world (China, Iran, Turkey, India and other countries), interaction with which will in the future provide a significant impetus to the development of both the association itself and all of its participants .
The article by Demidov V.V. “Strategic partnership of Russia and Kazakhstan: the ethnopolitical aspect of integration processes” on the basis of historical facts traced the evolution of relations between the two countries through the prism of issues such as the ethno-political component, national composition. At the end of 1991, an already independent Kazakhstan became a geopolitical reality. In his development, President N.A. undoubtedly played a prominent role. Nazarbayev. Nevertheless, to be fair, we emphasize that the positioning of the Republic as an established state could not have happened without the presence and interweaving of deep historical roots, age-old traditions in the development of components of statehood in one form or another, adaptation to changing conditions and building partnerships with Russia.
In the foreign policy concept of Russia, a line is clearly visible towards strengthening integration ties with the countries of Central Asia; in this context, Kazakhstan occupies a key position. Modern Kazakhstani-Russian relations have a solid foundation that was laid many years ago: trade, economic and humanitarian ties, including cross-border contacts, are developing .
The article "The Influence of Integration Processes in the EEU on the Caspian Region" by Parkhomchik analyzes the current state of the Caspian problem and the tasks that are being solved by 5 countries. Under the conditions of geopolitical transformations in the Caspian region, among which are changes in the distribution of forces in the Caspian energy solitaire, the beginning process of Iran’s withdrawal from geopolitical isolation, special attention should be paid to the emergence of a new form of Eurasian economic cooperation between Kazakhstan and Russia in the framework of such a union, as the Eurasian Economic Union, whose influence on the further development of the Caspian region remains insufficiently studied.
Currently, the Protocol to the Agreement on the delimitation of the bottom of the northern part of the Caspian Sea in order to exercise sovereign rights to subsoil use of 1998, signed in October 2015 by the heads of Kazakhstan and Russia, which will eliminate some items, can serve as a positive signal for the development of cooperation in this area. agreements on the joint development of one of the three transboundary fields, namely the Central oil-bearing structure. The signed document resolves the issue of additional geological exploration of the Central field before the conclusion of a Production Sharing Agreement (PSA) with Kazakhstan. In addition, the issuance of a license will also allow to attract additional study of the subsoil authorized organization of Kazakhstan. After the completion of the geological exploration stage, the enterprise has the right to continue using the subsoil in the relevant area using the general tax regime or conclude a PSA with the Russian government.
One of the alternative ways to strengthen economic relations between the states of the region can also be the implementation of the proposal of the head of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev to create a Caspian free trade zone. It should be noted that the region already has positive experience in creating special economic zones (FEZ). For example, in Kazakhstan in the Caspian Sea, the SEZ “Aktau Sea Port” operates, within which five projects are implemented to ensure output of 220 billion tenge, and in 2015, together with the Azerbaijani side, it is planned to start the implementation of the next project - logistics terminal. In the future, the Caspian states have the opportunity to merge the created FEZs into a single regional system that would “wrap around” the Caspian Sea, and then go on to the format of a free trade zone (FTA). However, it should be noted that whatever the next steps of the Caspian Five to strengthen economic cooperation, the Caspian countries should fully take into account the possible consequences of geopolitical and geo-economic transformations around the region, among which, first of all, the formation of such a new regional structure as EAEU .
The article by B. Sultanov “Kazakhstan and the Eurasian Economic Union: State and Prospects” addressed such issues as: prospects for interregional cooperation; conjunction of the EAEU and the Silk Road Economic Belt; conjugation of the Kazakhstan project "Nurly Zhol" and the Silk Road Economic Belt; Kazakhstan-EEU.
On May 8, 2015, Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping at the talks in Moscow spoke in favor of pairing the Eurasian Economic Union and the Chinese Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) project, which implies the creation of a common economic space in Eurasia. Over the past years, much work has been done in this direction. To date, China has invested 26 billion US dollars in the economy of the EEU countries. The Chinese side plans to send at least $ 40 billion to implement this project.
The leadership of Russia and the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC) of the EAEU are considering the conjugation of the interests of the EAEU and the SREB, primarily through the prism of the implementation of infrastructure projects in Eurasian space. At the same time, the EEC rightly believes that European countries are actively seeking access to the markets of China and Asia. In turn, China, fearing a possible naval blockade by the United States and its allies, is interested in land routes to enter the markets of European countries. The leadership of Kazakhstan, supporting in general the pairing of the EAEU and The SSBP has advanced its pairing option. Namely, the plan of the docking of the Nurly Zhol program with the SREB, in which several other priorities are set. The first outline of the Nurly Zhol interface with the SREB was agreed upon during the visit of the Head of Kazakhstan to China in September 2015, under which a number of relevant intergovernmental agreements were signed.
On April 1, 2016, in Washington, the President of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev put forward his next initiative to create a united Eurasian economic space. Russian President Vladimir Putin developed this initiative by proposing at the International Forum “One Belt and One Way” (Beijing, May 14, 2017) to create a large Eurasian space by combining the potentials of the EEU, the project “One Belt and One Way”, Shanghai cooperation organizations, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and with the participation of the states of the European Union. In this case, - V.Putin considers, - for the first time in history, it will be possible to create a harmonious, balanced and comprehensive common space of cooperation from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
Noting that the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev has repeatedly stressed that there is no talk about any re-creation of the USSR. At the same time, the attention of Western partners was drawn to the need to overcome the stereotypes of the Cold War, which prevent us from looking into the future. Despite the rejection by the West as a whole of Eurasian integration, the majority of the population of Kazakhstan, nevertheless, maintains integration cooperation with Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, with whose people we have been associated for centuries for economic, historical, cultural and humanitarian ties of cooperation. Substantially, integration sentiments in Kazakhstan are supported not only by representatives of the older generations, most of whose life was spent in the USSR, but also by young people .
In the article Mantusova V.B. “The EAEU as a factor in improving the competitiveness of the participating countries” analyzes trade and economic factors between the countries of the EAEU, among which we note the development of industrial production, the technological structure, investment, and innovation potential.
Relations with the CIS countries, in accordance with the Concept of Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation, are a priority. Russia, like other Central Asian states, participates in various multilateral structures. The various organizations in which the countries of Central Asia take part, for well-known reasons, the EAEU stands out, which is essentially a trade and economic instrument for interaction of the post-Soviet member countries, primarily with Russia.
One of the main reasons for the lack of productivity of industrial enterprises in gross value added (GVA) from the level of economically developed countries is the imperfect technological structure of the industrial complex. So one of the global challenges to the development of industrial production at the present time is the increasing complexity of production processes, the increasing complexity of the product itself, the processes of its design, design, production management.
In this regard, on September 8, 2015, the Eurasian Intergovernmental Council, by its decision No. 9, approved the main areas of industrial cooperation within the EAEU6 (hereinafter referred to as the Main Directions or ONPS). The main goal of industrial cooperation in the framework of the EAEU is the realization of the potential of effective interaction between member states to accelerate and sustain industrial development, improve the competitiveness and innovative activity of the industry of member states.
Analysis of the mutual investment flows of the EAEU countries shows that today the corporate integration of the EAEU countries is mainly concentrated in the field of subsoil use and petrochemistry, while cooperation in the manufacturing industry is insignificant.
The main participants of mutual investment relations in the EAEU region are Russia and Kazakhstan. At the end of 2014, Russia accounted for 84% of exported FDI and 13% of imported FDI. Similar figures for Kazakhstan were 14% and 36%, respectively. At the same time, the share of mutual investment ties between Russia and Kazakhstan reached 47.6%. Another important investment pair with well-developed counter-flows of capital was Russia and Belarus (34.5%). Investments of Russia in Armenia and Kyrgyzstan, and also Kazakhstan in Armenia also stood out.
Deepening cooperation in the post-Soviet space will expand ties between enterprises of the industrial complexes of the EAEU member states, involve a large number of small and medium enterprises of the parties in the integration process, create new production chains, provide an opportunity to pursue a common mutually beneficial marketing strategy in third-country markets (instead of unreasonable competition) what. Ultimately, it will lead to the strengthening of interstate relations and the expansion of integration processes in the Eurasian space .
Didenko N.I., Romashkina E.S. The article analyzes the role of the EAEU countries in the global economy. Indicators of this process are gross domestic product, foreign investment, national companies participating in research conducted by various economic institutions.
The world economy is constantly changing under the influence of trends and processes, the most important of which has become globalization. Countries integrate into the global economy, occupying certain positions in the globalizing world. The procedure for assessing the level of a country's involvement in the globalization process is not well developed methodically, which makes the study relevant. One of the indicators is the participation of national companies in the global transnational production of goods and services. Studies show that there are no companies in Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, both in the top 50 companies in global control and in the Forbs Global 2000 rating for 2016. Kazakhstan in 2013 was represented in the Forbs Global 2000 rating by two companies - KazMunaiGas Exploration Production JSC (1064th place) and Halyk Bank JSC (1640th place). This fact confirms the greater involvement of Kazakhstan in the global economy, compared with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan.
In terms of the “population mobility in the global economy” subsystem, Russia and Kazakhstan were more involved, demonstrating an average level of involvement. In the rest of the EAEU countries, a low level was noted for this subsystem. In general, the EAEU countries are weakly involved in the global economy as host countries, incoming tourist flows and an integrator of international migrants .
The collective article of the Russian authors “The Role of the Eurasian Economic Union in the Formation of Greater Eurasia” discusses the interests of the powers of the Eurasian region, which are participants in many organizations and projects. The total economic potential of the emerging Greater Eurasia is more than 1/3 of the world’s, and the human, estimated by population, is more than 40%.
At present, supply corridors are being formed not only in the “West-East” direction with the support of the PRC, but also in the “North-South” areas, including the participation of Russia, India, Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. Russia and other EAEU countries are actively developing cooperation in the energy sector with China. The Power of Siberia gas pipeline and the construction of the Amur gas processing plant for the supply of natural gas and its products to China are being implemented ahead of the established schedule, the first gas supplies to China are expected in 2019.
Within the Eurasian space, there are disagreements and unresolved conflicts: instability in Afghanistan, contradictions between India and China, environmental issues, problems of poverty and sustainable development.
Also in the article was considered an important from the point of view of geopolitics and international security, the economic union of Greater Eurasia, which will significantly reduce the ability of third parties to intervene in the political and economic processes on the continent. From the position of the international division of labor and global competition, the countries of the continent have a unique opportunity to correct the imbalances of the world economy caused by the financial and technological dominance of developed countries.
The Eurasian Economic Union began full-fledged work on January 1, 2015. The economic structure and principles of macroeconomic regulation in the EAEU space remain similar. Strong economic, logistic, cultural, social and political ties have historically been established in the region; a single national economic complex has been created and continues to develop.
The structure of industrial production of such EAA states as Russia and Kazakhstan has an obvious shift towards resource-extracting sectors. One of the key tasks that the Customs Union of the EAEU must tackle is to increase the volume of foreign and mutual trade of the member states of the Union. However, the crisis in the global economy and the raw material orientation of exports of large countries of the EEU do not yet allow for a significant increase in export volumes .
In the article, Marchenko O. “Russia in the Eurasian Electric Power Integration” considers the main parameters of the energy policy of Russia and the EEU countries. Electricity integration and the creation of AEEC can provide significant systemic effects: a) reduce the need for generating capacity; b) to increase the reliability of the united electric power systems (EPS); c) to intensify interstate electricity trade; d) to expand opportunities for large-scale use of renewable energy sources, which can improve the ecological situation. In a remote perspective, the inclusion of the AESEO in the GEO will allow to connect the continental energy associations of America, Africa and Eurasia.
Electric power integration of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan includes electricity trading, partial implementation of system integration effects when power systems are integrated. Russia owns a share in the share capital of a number of Kazakhstan’s energy facilities, in particular
Ekibastuz GRES-2, cuts, "Bogatyr" and "Northern". Integration is also developing with other countries of Central Asia. The leading Russian state corporations participate in the share capital of the Sangtuda hydroelectric station-1 in Tajikistan, where Rosatom owns 60.1%, and PJSC RusHydro - 14.9%.
On the Eurasian continent, a very large, but still insufficiently integrated electric power complex is being formed.
Having a large territory, rich natural energy resources, a long latitudinal electric grid infrastructure, Russia can play an important role in the process of the formation of the AEAEC. Already existing UES electrical networks and cross-border transmission lines can form the basis of the power grid infrastructure of the Eurasian Super Energy Association.
The creation of the AESEO allows the Russian Federation, on the one hand, to expand electricity trade with certain countries, and on the other, to reduce the need for generating capacity and fuel costs through the implementation of integration system effects. Significant for our country can be the effect of providing system services to other participants of the AEAEC .
Kazakh-Russian relations are the most important in the foreign policy of our republic. Recently, certain approaches have emerged in the works of Kazakhstani and Russian researchers, which analyze various areas of multilateral cooperation between two countries.
Of the entire Commonwealth of Independent States, the closest and the most fruitful cooperation has developed between Kazakhstan and Russia. Experts, scientists explore various aspects of the relationship, issues of state security and military-strategic cooperation, humanitarian problems between the two countries. As practice has shown, the improvement of these relations and their practical realization can receive a positive resolution only taking into account mutual interests and a conscious desire for a fruitful mutually beneficial partnership.
1. Information and legal system "Garant". - URL: http://garant.ru. (the date of the appeal - 22/11/2018.)
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6. Mantusov VB EEU as a factor in improving the competitiveness of the participating countries // Economic Security Bulletin 2016.№2.P.304-308.
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9. Marchenko O. and others. Russia in the Eurasian electric power integration // World Economy and International Relations 2018. №6. P.18-29.
Список использованной литературы
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қауымдастырылған профессоры, т.ғ.д.,
Л.Н.Гумилева атындағы ЕҰУ
Л.Н. Гумилев атындағы ЕҰУ
«Аймақтану» мамандығының магистранты
Л.Гумилев атындағы ЕҰУ
Тарих ғылымдарының кандидаты, доцент
ҚАЗАҚСТАН-РЕСЕЙ БАЙЛАНЫСТАРДЫ ТАЛДАУ СҰРАҚЫНА (ТАРИХИЙГРАФИЯЛЫҚ ШОЛУ)
Қазақстан мен Ресей өздерінің қарым-қатынастарында прагматизмді танытуға ұмтылады, олардың мүдделерін егемендікті құрметтеу қағидаттарында қорғайды. Айта кету керек, Қазақстан-Ресей қатынастары экономиканың әртүрлі салаларында, гуманитарлық салада және саясатта дамып келеді.
Екі ел арасындағы ұзақ мерзімді ынтымақтастық аймақаралық және трансшекаралық байланыстарды нығайтуға септігін тигізді. Республикамызда 50-ден астам ірі қазақстандық-ресейлік жобалар жүзеге асырылып жатқаны белгілі, шамамен 6 млрд. Сонымен қатар, бүгінгі таңда Қазақстан мен Ресейдің даму стратегиясының қалыптасуы байқалады, бұл экономиканың құрылымын сапалы өзгертуге әкелуі тиіс.
Түйінді сөздер: зерттеу, Қазақстан, Ресей, экономика, интеграция.
ассоцированный профессор, д.и.н.,
Айтмағамбетов Д. Р
К ВОПРОСУ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ КАЗАХСТАНСКО - РОССИЙСКИХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ (ИСТОРИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ ОБЗОР)
Казахстан и Россия
стремятся в своих отношениях проявлять
прагматизм, отстаивая свои интересы на
принципах уважения суверенитета.
Отметим, что казахстанско-российские отношения развиваются в различных секторах экономики, гуманитарной сфере, политике.
Многолетнее сотрудничество между двумя странами привело к укреплению межрегиональных и приграничных контактов. Известно, что в нашей Республике реализуется более 50 крупных казахстанско-российских проектов на общую сумму около 6 млрд долл. Следует также отметить, что сегодня идет формирование новой стратегии развития Казахстана и России, которая должна привести к качественному изменению структуры экономики.
Ключевые слова: исследования, Казахстан, Россия, экономика, интеграция.