Allocation of norms of traditional culture of behavior in a subject not only gives to separate article the chance to open a number of such parties of spiritual culture, public life which quite often drop out of a field of vision of the ethnographer, but also in a new light to see already rather well studied phenomena, having included them in system of moral and ethical representations and etiquette. It is known that the traditional and modernized cultures personify various beginnings and tasks. Variability and mobility of the modernized culture gives to the representatives a number of advantages in achievement of the individual purposes and adaptation to the changing conditions. While traditional culture, presenting to the individual more accurate and unambiguous values, meanings and examples of behavior, introduces orderliness and stability in his life, and respectively, carries out valuable and orientation and protective function more effectively.
Considering modern ethical culture of Kazakhs, it is possible to say that there are both new and traditional lines. In general traditional culture of Kazakhs including the etiquette investigated by us, is gradually transformed under the influence of modernization processes in the direction of unification and simplification.
One of the main levers which set modernization process in motion was transformation of economy on the basis of creation of the local industry and development of the market relations. New economic conditions were incompatible with the former way based on a nomadic way of life that led to its radical withdrawal pains.
It is possible to allocate some factors promoting serious transformations in the Kazakh society. First, it is violent transfer of Kazakhs to settled life during collectivization in the late twenties – the beginning of the 1930th years that gradually led to loss of nomadic traditions and replacement with their new. Secondly, – processes of an urbanization and the related unification of ethnic features.Thirdly, – existence in foreign culture, first of all the Russian environment and influence of the Europeanized culture on culture of Kazakhs.
Besides, one more factor of modern transformations of traditional Kazakh etiquette which influence isn't studied rather fully yet, deepening of religiousness, some layers of the Kazakh society, perception of Muslim rules of conduct which not always coincide with traditional norms is. This process, in our opinion, mostly is connected with activity Kazakh Turkish lyceums and universities (The Egyptian university of Islamic culture of Nur Mubarak in Almaty) and etc.
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As showed research, modern forms of greetings and farewells at Kazakhs possess certain specifics and the marking properties, allowing to define, from where the person before us, from what he the region, from the city or the village. Greetings of the southern, east and western Kazakhs differ, thus their most archaic forms occur at the Kazakhs of Mongolia who more kept and a traditional way of life
Ways of greetings at city youth are most simplified and modernized, though there are separate traditional lines. Despite simplification of etiquette instructions and disappearance of many special verbal formulations, the general principles of traditional Kazakh etiquette continue to work and in modern norms of greetings: the accurate rules dividing younger and seniors, men and women remain.
The field material which I collected and analyzed allows to establish the fact of bigger stability of traditional Kazakh etiquette in rural areas where its most characteristic features continue to exist: the respectful attitude towards "seniors" both on age, and by a social status; the specifics connected with gender and age distinctions. In the Kazakh villages still there are traditional welcome and farewell formulas and gestures expressing respect and a friendly arrangement; in the southern and central regions of Kazakhstan special forms of greetings of separate social groups with the high status remain even (Torah). The traditional etiquette norms connected by a greeting and farewell to guests, in particular, farewell guests and gifting at farewell don't disappear. Thus the innovations caused by emergence of new kinds of activity don't break its principles. For example, the forms of greetings defining rules of conduct in modern situations and which are under construction by analogy with traditional norms meet.
However, in cities and urban areas of Kazakhstan are rapidly processes associated with globalization - the disappearance of traditional culture, modernization, westernization and unification of people's daily lives. All this is expressed in the norms of behavior, especially urban Kazakhs. The democratization of the relationship between gender and age groups and social strata leads to a gradual erosion of the traditional principles of etiquette. Simplify the wording welcome disappear postures and gestures that symbolize respect, there are European rules of conduct governing men and women chat.
Institute of Hospitality in the nomadic peoples was one of the most reliable ways to preserve the social community, the consolidation of its internal connections. Etiquette treatment of guest depended on the degree of relationship, age, social status, place of residence (close / far) arrived the man on his floor.
Etiquette hospitality in a modern society has undergone a major transformation. It is no longer secrete numerous categories of visitors, they are divided only on the rank and uninvited, ie "Invited" and "God" (random). Many traditions still preserved in the villages, virtually disappeared from the cities. So, the city already can deny shelter to a stranger, do not abundant table guests, and treat only tea and sweets. "Random" guest, as before, in the long term is not: in the countryside at the present time, it will be for a maximum of three days. Who decided immediately to ask the guest about the purpose of his visit, and not wait three days. In the cities, visitors advance warning of their arrival and bring gifts to the hosts. At the same time, some of the customs and stored in the cities and in the villages - so the guest can not enter the house and do not try to treat - at least a piece, but he needs to eat.
Traditional etiquette standards of hospitality and related meal it have persisted in the countryside while taking elderly guests.
Reception among young people, especially in the city often receives European forms. But despite the many changes in the tradition of hospitality it is still one of the most important values of Kazakh society.
Intra family etiquette Kazakhs suffered perhaps the most significant changes. To date, according to informants, intra etiquette rules do not differ from the European ones.
However, our observations indicate that there are situations where family members observe the traditional etiquette rules. So, in the presence of guests or relatives of senior woman her husband goes to the traditional norms of behavior (evinces emphatic homage to her husband and eldest, the prohibition of pronouncing their name, wears a headscarf, etc.). Traditional etiquette wife relationship show in front of others: display of emotions on the people in the relationship of the spouses is not approved; and wife should not publicly reprove her husband, belittling his dignity.
Traditional intra etiquette better preserved in large families with children unselected family. It emphasizes the primacy of the father; to a certain extent respected the customs of avoidance between daughter (Kelin) and my husband's parents; Young parents are more restrained in the manifestation of emotions in relation to their children in the presence of older relatives. Young families, who live separately from their parents, as a rule, do not adhere to traditional norms. And being at a party, in front of strangers, they are more free to behave, can publicly express their feelings, causing condemnation of the elderly.
There are regional differences in the degree of loss of intra traditions of etiquette. The custom of bowing morning and daughter-in-law-in-law was gone almost the entire territory of Kazakhstan. This particular greeting etiquette remains only in the villages of southern regions and Mongolian Kazakhs. Also Kazakh southern regions of Kazakhstan and Mongolia, characterized by a widespread custom at tergeu - not mentioning the names of relatives of her husband. Women of South Kazakhstan still replace them with synonyms or translate the name into the Russian language. With modern families here are the basic rules of etiquette, emphasizing the primacy of the husband - he gets a place of honor, he is respected; Reserved senior obedience, respect for the father-in-law.
The blessing (bata take - give baht) Kazakhs considered a mandatory element of the meal etiquette, life-cycle rituals, recite them with wires and any undertakings. The tradition of "giving bata" is one of the most conservative etiquette norms. She has undergone the least change, in spite of the processes of urbanization and modernization of the Kazakh society. This tradition is equally honored and in the city and in the countryside, it is an integral part of modern everyday culture.
However, in the Soviet era baht-Fatiha spoken very rarely, mainly in the wake (aces), and often secretly. This is explained by the fact that the conduct of any religious practice was banned. But say the Kazakh baht did not stop ever.
About the existence of the full etiquette rules baht taking evidenced by the fact that it is observed in all segments of the population and, regardless of age. This is one of those traditions that young people are trying to comply, they "give a blessing" and everyday, and celebrations.
Those grandfather was a mullah, or who have completed a special religious school, as the baht read sura from the Koran. Those who do not know Arabic, usually say the blessing in your own words. Before the blessing of the word handed down from father to son, there were "inherited" the baht. Who printed the various collections of Kazakh blessings, and learn a lot of baht to these books, and then recite them to different activities.
A manifestation of tolerance were considered mutual invitations to visit. Disclaimer stified
extreme disrespect. Such a person is not invited anywhere else. There was a saying: "If
you accept the invitation, you will not wait more than an invitation" [3, 23].
A peculiar manifestation of tolerance is whether the custom of avoiding violence. My
husband's parents are never directly make observations of their daughter, they are likely to
turn to criticism of his daughter in the presence of the bride, and the latter will have to
understand that in fact the comments relate to it. This rule is now stored in traditional
families and mostly in rural areas and in urban rare to find a similar picture. It is
characteristic that in the popular mind avoidance due to the need of respect between the
"avoid" each other's sides. (N. I Grodekov results saying: "in-law will not respect a
daughter, if you often see her face.").Materials collected and analyzed in this paper
suggest that by the end of this century, formed a more or less stable model of
communication culture of the Kazakhs. Its characteristic feature is the combination of
elements of the modern (urban, European) and traditional (archaic, Eastern) cultures [3,
The basic principles of the traditional Kazakh etiquette, despite his transformation, preserved in modern communication standards (though eroded or become less clear, depending on the environment - urban, rural, and region - the southern regions of Mongolia or the North). It maintains the principle of Respect for the Aged. However, he altered: there is no extensive hierarchy of precedence, which was observed in a traditional society. Apparently, with increasing democratization of intra family and social relations the principle of precedence will be reduced to respect for the elderly.
There remains the principle of tolerance as having universal value. It takes less formal form, expressed not so much in the specific rules of etiquette, but in the spirit, the atmosphere of dialogue. The biggest change was subjected to gender differentiation, which is associated with the increasing assertion of women's equality.
In conclusion, we must mention the existence of the great interest in the modern Kazakh society to the traditional etiquette and the trend towards the revival of some of the rules of etiquette. This is undoubtedly due to the rise of national consciousness of the Kazakhs, after Kazakhstan's independence and the desire to study of their traditional culture.
1.Гродеков Н.И. Киргизы и Каракиргизы Сыр-Дарьинской области /Киргизы и Каракиргизы Сыръ-Дарьинской области.Т.1.Ташкент:Типо-типография С.И.Лахтина, 1889. 544 с.
2.Наумова О.Б. Представления о «своих» и «чужих» и традиции толерантности в культуре центрально-азиатских народов // Толерантность и культурная традиция. М., 2002. С. 220.
2.Муканов М.М. Этнопсихологическая специфика невербальных коммуникативных знаков // Интеллект и речь. Психология. Вып.2. Алма-Ата, 1972. С. 110-111.
3.Никишенков А.А. Традиционный этикет народов России. XIX –начало XX в. М., Наука, 1999. С. 22.
4.Харузин А.Н. Киргизы Букеевской орды. (Антрополого-этнологический очерк). М., 1891. С. 28, 30.
1, Grodekov N.I. Kirgizy i Karakirgizy Syr-Dar'inskoj oblasti /Kirgizy i Karakirgizy Syr#-Dar'inskoj oblasti.T.1.Tashkent:Tipo-tipografija S.I.Lahtina, 1889. 544 s.
2.Naumova O.B. Predstavlenija o «svoih» i «chuzhih» i tradicii tolerantnosti v kul'ture central'no-aziatskih narodov // Tolerantnost' i kul'turnaja tradicija. M., 2002. S. 220.
2.Mukanov M.M. Jetnopsihologicheskaja specifika neverbal'nyh kommunikativnyh znakov // Intellekt i rech'. Psihologija. Vyp.2. Alma-Ata, 1972. S. 110-111.
3.Nikishenkov A.A. Tradicionnyj jetiket narodov Rossii. XIX –nachalo XX v. M., Nauka, 1999. S. 22.
4.Haruzin A.N. Kirgizy Bukeevskoj ordy. (Antropologo-jetnologicheskij ocherk). M., 1891. S. 28, 30.
5.ТatarenkoА.N. Psycological research of social-cultural modernization Психологическиеисследованиясоциокультурноймодернизации. М., 2007. С. 21.
Осоновы трансформациионных форм казахского этикета
В данной статье рассматриваются этническая культура казахов в современном обществе, так как ней присутствуют как новые, так и традиционные черты. В целом же традиционная культура казахов, в том числе и исследованный нами этикет, постепенно трансформируется под влиянием модернизационных процессов в направлении унификации и упрощения. Основным фактором современных трансформаций традиционного казахского этикета, влияние которого пока не изучено достаточно полно, является углубление религиозности, некоторых слоев казахского общества, восприятие мусульманских правил поведения, которые не всегда совпадают с традиционными нормами.
Одним из основных рычагов, приведших в движение процесс модернизации, явилось преобразование экономики на базе создания местной индустрии и развития рыночных отношений. Новые экономические условия оказались несовместимы с прежним укладом, основанным на кочевом образе жизни, что привело к его коренной ломке.
Ключевые слова:Этикет, трасформация, урбанизация, инокультура, этническая особенность.
Қазақ әдебінің өзгеріске ұшыраған ерекшеліктері
Авторлар бұл мақалада автор қазақ әдебінің негізгі түрлеріне жан-жақты сипаттама жасаған. Өзгеріске ұшыраудағы негізгі принциптерге негізделетіндігін айтқан.
Қазақ халқының дәстүрлі мәдениетінде әдеп (этикет) мәселесі модернизация үрдістерінің ықпалымен өзерістерге ұшырау себептерін көрсеткен. Жаһандану мен мәдениеттің өзара әрекеттестігі мәселелерінің практикалық маңыздылығы мен өзектілігін ескере отырып, мақала авторы ұсынылған жұмыста қазақ әдебінің трансформациялану түсінігін ғылыми көзқарас тұрғысынан талдауға, оның жағымды мен жағымсыз сипатына тоқталған. Дәстүрлі қазақ әдебінің өзгеріске ұшыраудың негізгі әсері (фактор) қатарына кейбір әлеуметтік топтың қоғамдық діни ахуалдың күшеуі әсер етті. Әдеп мәселесінің жаһандану үрдісіне адамдар ғана емес, әлемдік саясаттың дәстүрлі мен дәстүрлі емес факторлары да қатысуда. Оның мысалын біз күнделікті өмірден де байқай аламыз. Жаңару үрдісінің негізгі қозғаушы күші ретінде нарықтық экономикалың да әсері болғандығы айтылған. Жаңа экономикалық жағдайлар көшпелі қоғамның дәстүрінің өзгеріске ұшырауына ерекше әсерін айтқан.
Кілт сөздер: Дәстүрлі мәдениет, әдеп, трасформация, урбандалу, этникалық үрдістер.