The collapse of Soviet Union changed the balance of power in Central Asia (CA): new states seeking to enter the system of international relationsappeared in this region. Kazakhstan along with other Central Asian nations began to carry out market reforms in its economy.
Kazakhstan and the European Union have cooperated productively since 1995. During this period, both sides have done tremendous work to bring their positions closer on many issues not only regarding their relations, but also on problems of international importance. The relevance of our chosen study is connected with the fact that Kazakhstan is a country with a market economy, which has attracted foreign direct investment. International experience shows that many states have gone such way of attracting foreign direct investment.
The given article uses a historical method based on an analysis of investment projects between Kazakhstan and Europe. The dynamics of trade contacts was investigated according to chronological principles: from 1991 to 2018. At the same time, a comparative method was used, which consists mainly from the research and analysis of projects of the leading countries of Europe, with their specific features and differences. Comparative analysis is also used in the analysis of documents between Kazakhstan and individual European countries.
Studies of Russian scholars on cooperation between Kazakhstan and Europe are systemic in nature and cover multilateral relations. Their work is devoted to current problems of these relations.
The Kazakhstan source is the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the EuropeanUnion of 1999, covering a wide range of relationship issues. The agreement became the first main document regulating cooperation, but later the provisions of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement(PCA) were expanded, since they could not fully take into account the changing circumstances of that time .
“EU Strategy for Central Asia 2007-2013” was developed by EU due to the increased attention to this region; its main focus is on a regional approach to the key problems of Central Asia .
“Foreign Policy Concept for 2014-2020 Republic of Kazakhstan” is a strategic document on identifying main foreign policy directions, in which EU is noted as one of its priorities .
"The Republic of Kazakhstan and the European Union: main stages of cooperation over 15 years of Kazakhstan independence" by Isaev K.D. analyzes main events in the historical retrospective. Over the years, Kazakhstan has formulated priorities of its foreign policy course. Perspective and the need to develop these relations for Kazakhstan is determined by the international role of European Union in the modern world. At the same time, the EU is an important trade and economic partner of Kazakhstan and a major investor in its economy. A certain interest for Kazakhstan is also evoked by rich experience of legislative, scientific and technological development of Western European states. Thus, cooperation of the Republic of Kazakhstan and European Union at the initial stage of its development was based on mutual interest of the parties in strengthening bilateral contacts. In general, period from 1991to1995 marks the economic and investment interaction, as well as the establishment of a regulatory framework for further relations between Kazakhstan and EU. The second period (from 1996 to 2000) is characterized by deepening and revitalization of relationships developed on the basis of previously reached agreements. Cooperation in energy sector, interaction in transport and communications, are becoming important, mutual trade and investment activities are being strengthened. Over the past years of mutually beneficial cooperation, Kazakhstan and the EU have achieved positive results in almost all areas reflected in the PCA. Kazakhstan positively assesses the prospects for further cooperation and looks forward to deepening the dialogue with European Union .
In his monograph “Path to Europe. The European Union: an Integration Model Experience”B. Irishev describes in detail the process of the origin and evolution of European integration, pays special attention to motives and goals of the leading European countries in various issues. In this paper, author also gives facts of the influence of Franco-German cooperation on the solution of problems encountered by European community in the EU development process .
In their monograph “European Union Strategy for Central Asia 2007–2013: Preliminary Results”Chebotarev A.E. and Gubaydullina M.Sh. analyze the implementation of this document, assess the preliminary results, and predict further possible prospects for the EU policy in this direction. Authors draw a line under the twenty-year cooperation of two regions and indicate main milestones of their relationship .
Also, different questions are studied by Burkhanov A, Abdullin D, Baizakova K, Koyshibaev M. and others.
Prospects for relations between Kazakhstan and European countries are based on understanding that Europe is one of the world's political and economic centers, and integration processes are strong within the European Union. At the same time, Central Asia is of great interest in connection with the resource potential, geo-strategic position and increasing role of countries of this region in maintaining stability in the world.
Considerable importance are also multilateral contacts with the countries of Northern Europe and the Benelux, which are highly developed industrial-agrarian states that have reached the front lines in many indicators of a market economy, social sphere and education.
In recent years, Kazakhstan’s relations with Norway, Denmark, Sweden in various areas have intensified.
In 1995, a seminar on Transformation in Central Asia and the Role of Cooperation on Development was held at the Clingendael Institute of International Relations in Netherlands with the assistance of Embassies of Kazakhstan and Mongolia. As a result of that seminar, the preparation of technical assistance projects for Kazakhstan was initiated by a number of non-governmental organizations in Netherlands, including the Humanist Institute for Cooperation with Developing Countries “HIVOS”, the International Agricultural Center “IAC” andthe Dutch organization for internationalization in education “NUFFIC”.
In the period from 1990 to 1997 Netherlands Government has allocated $2 million to support regional and bilateral projects in Kazakhstan. Since 1998, the Netherlands government financed environmental projects (a program to save the Aral Sea, conducting research on use of wind power plants).
On October 22 of 1998, in Rotterdam, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the city with the participation of Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Benelux countries organized a seminar called "Business opportunities in Kazakhstan", in which representatives of the Ministry of Energy, Industry and Trade from Kazakhstan also took part.
Kazakhstan and the Netherlands signed the Protocol of Intentions on technical cooperation on coastal issues, water management and exchange of experience in November 1993 in The Hague.
In April 1995, the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands on air traffic was initialled in Almaty. On September 26 of 1995, regular air service between these two countries was opened. In March 1999, the Dutch side handed over a new draft agreement, which was under consideration by Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
On April 24 of 1996, a bilateral convention on the avoidance of double taxation was signed in Almaty.
On October 29-30 of 1996, the text of bilateral Agreement on international road transport was initialled in The Hague after negotiations between delegations of the Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management of the Netherlands. The signing of this Agreement was planned for February 2000.
On June 23 of 1999, experts negotiated on a draft intergovernmental agreement on the promotion and mutual protection of investments, at the conclusion of which the initialing of this document took place. The signing of this Agreement was planned to be carried out in February 2000 .
On January 19-21 of 2000, delegation of the Swiss company SGS - Societe Generale de Surveyans headed by Director General responsible for services to governments and international organizations, Rolf Jeker, was in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Main objectives of the visit were to establish contacts between the Swiss company and ministries and departments of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the presentation of a company’s new program at the seminar-meeting of the Ministry of Government Revenue of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Within the framework of meeting of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan organized on January 17-22 in Astana on the results of 1999, the SGS leaders held two seminars on trade facilitation and customs modernization, as well as customs procedures for joining the WorldTradeOrganization (WTO).
The topic of discussions with I. Beisembetov, held on January 19, was the presentation of a new program of the SGS company to offer it to the authorities of Kazakhstan.
The essence of this program was to apply new methods of assessment services for pre-shipment inspection, trade monitoring, increase in tax collection, etc.
The SGS company had branches in 140 countries of the world, which shows its global nature. Based on the accumulated experience and advanced technologies, the company intended to offer Kazakhstan experience in the field of personnel training and customs modernization.
Regarding the failure of this company in the Kazakhstan market a few years ago, I. Beisembetov noted that he did not see any underlying reason for this - this is just the unfortunate experience of the first collaboration.
R. Yeker agreed with this, adding that now he is at the helm of the company and intends to personally monitor the activities in Kazakhstan .
On October 25-26 of 2000, President N.A. Nazarbayev made his visit to Denmark. The official delegation included E.A. Idrisov, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the UK A.K. Akhmetov, Assistant to the President B.D. Utemuratov, Minister of Agriculture S.M. Mynbayev and Minister of Energy, Industry and Trade V.S. Shkolnik.
During the visit, President met with Queen Margrethe II, held talks with Prime Minister P.N. Rasmussen, (who were accompanied by a joint press conference), met with the Chairman of the Folketing (Parliament) of Denmark, I. Hansen.
N.A. Nazarbayev visited the largest shipbuilding chain in Europe, belonging to the A.P.Moller group, met with the president (owner) of the company Mærsk Mc-Kinney Moller, discussing with him the prospects for possible cooperation. Kazakhstan leader visited museum of the prominent Danish writer G.Kh. Anderson in Odense, and left a memorable entry in the book of honorable guests.
During the negotiations with Prime Minister of Denmark P.N. Rasmussen discussed a wide range of issues of bilateral and international cooperation. It was noted that all companies, including the industrial giant - A.P. Moller, gradually developed its activity in Kazakhstan.However the volume of bilateral trade was far from the existing potential. In this regard, the significance of expanding the legal framework of cooperation, the need for speedy signing of the Agreement onpromotion and mutual protection of investments being worked out in that period of time were noted.
President N.A. Nazarbayev underlined great opportunities available to Danish companies to invest in the food and processing industries, agriculture of Kazakhstan. He noted that the experience of advanceddutchfarmers can be very useful in our country, in connection with which he proposed, as an experiment, to provide plots of land for the organization of model farms. This proposal was regarded by P.N. Rasmussen as acceptable and promising. A positive response was also caused by a proposal for possible investment in the food industry and agrarian sector, which will complement the existing investment of Danish capital in the energy sector (heating equipment) and water sector.
The Danish side was very interested in the idea of using the Northern Corridor of Trans-Asian railway to allow European countries to Pacific ports through the territory of Kazakhstan and China.P. Rasmussen proposed to consider this issue in line with the forthcoming EU expansion to the East, which, in his opinion, will inevitably have an impact on Kazakhstan, primarily in terms of involving our country in closer substantive cooperation with EU. At the same time, dynamics of development of the reasoned business activity on the part of Kazakhstan, including in ensuring an efficient East-West energy corridor, is important (it was emphasized that Denmark and other countries take a very pragmatic position on this issue).
N.A. Nazarbayev thanked the Prime Minister for his participation in resolving the environmental disaster of the Aral Sea (revival of fisheries), underlying positive results which were already achieved, in particular, breeding flounder-gloss, resistant to living in conditions of strong mineralization of the environment. Prime Minister confirmed the intention of Danish government to continue to assist Kazakhstan in the field of ecology, stressing that here Denmark has real, particularly financial opportunities. Responding to this proposal, N. A. Nazarbayev emphasized that Kazakhstan would welcome the opening of office of the Environment Fund in Kazakhstan. Our country would be grateful for assistance in creating a fishing fleet, joint enterprises for the extraction and processing of flounder-gloss and ensuring its access to the European market.
Noting the important participation of Denmark in peacemaking processes and, in particular, the creation of a peacekeeping Baltic battalion, President spoke about the successful functioning of Centrazbat and mentioned the possibilities of Kazakhstan - Danish cooperation in formation of peacekeeping forces (which could be expressed in helping Denmark to develop Kazbat, providing training programs and double-sided internships, etc.). Prime Minister promised to study this proposalcarefully. Understanding was expressed of the strategic role of RK in this region and the significance of Kazakhstan’s participation in the Partnership for Peace program. Danish side proposed to promote the development of bilateral military cooperation through maintaining close contacts between the Kazakh and Danish missions in Brussels.
Parties also discussed the issue of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)current role and the organization’s activity in Central Asia. N.A. Nazarbayevmentioned the passive position of the OSCE regarding the stabilization of situation in Afghanistan, which is today a source of terrorism and the spread of drugs, which poses direct threats to member states. He also stressed that along with positive ones, there are also negative aspects oforganization’s activities in Central Asia. Thus, some OSCE officials, inadequately understanding the functions of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, not understanding the differences in the world’s civilizations and cultural traditions, allowed themselves a moralizing tone towards independent states, which reminds us the instructors of the Central Committee of Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CC CPSU)during the Soviet era. In this regard, the question of a possible withdrawal from the Organization was even raisedin some Central Asian countries.
Prime Minister generally agreed with President’s assessment, noting that the incompetence of individual bureaucrats should not undermine the authority of the whole European structure. He asked N.A. Nazarbayev to use his influence to eliminate existed centrifugal tendencies in the region in relation to the OSCE. P. Rasmussen assured that Denmark is interested in a stable democratic Central Asia and will do its utmost to facilitate this, including possibility of using the special fund in support of peace and stability.
N. A. Nazarbayev gave comprehensive answers to the questions of Prime Minister about Kazakhstan-Russian relations, the current role of CIS and the essence of the newly created Eurasian Community, the situation in Central Asia and Afghanistan as well as the solution of legal issue of Caspian status.
On October 27, members of the official delegation of the Republic of Kazakhstan worked on an individual program. Minister of Foreign Affairs E. A. Idrissov held talks with Denmark's Minister of Foreign Affairs N.Kh. Petersen, during which the issues raised by President N.A. Nazarbayev and Prime Minister P. Rasmussenwere discussed in detail. Parties paid important attention, in particular, to the Danish Mixed Credit Facility scheme and the projects to create a water reservoir in the Syr-Darya river basin. Following the discussion of these problems, the Ambassador of Denmark in Kazakhstan D. Nielson sent a letter with specific proposals to the head of the Kazakhstan Foreign Ministry.
Foreign Minister E.A. Idrissov also met with the Chairman of the Foreign Policy Committee of the Danish Parliament, I.M. Bruun-Viero, discussing with her a wide range of issues of bilateral cooperation and international challenges. Danish side was greatly interested, particularly, in the development “Strategy of Kazakhstan –2030”, described in detail by Kazakh minister.
Working lunch was held by E.A. Idrisov with M.Kjearum, director of the Children's Center for Human Rights, during which the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan spoke about consistent democratic changes in our country. Minister of Energy, Industry and Trade V. Shkolnik held talks with the Minister of Energy and Environment of Denmark, Svend Auken.Attention of the Danish side was drawn to the technical side of the project to create a reservoir in the Syr-Darya river basin, designated by Foreign Minister E.A. Idrisov at the talks in the Danish Foreign Ministry. Danish Minister recommended discussing the possibility of implementing the project at the Danish Institute of Water, which is the Danish lead organization in the implementation of water and energy projects. Parties reached an agreement to provide Kazakhstan with all the necessary technical information on the proposed project. 
During the meeting at Danish institute of water with Managing Director Asger Kej Shkolnik made a proposal for joint cooperation in monitoring of fluctuations in the water level of the Caspian Sea, noting that this problem is of crucial importance for the further development of oil and gas resources. Parties reached an agreement on the exchange of relevant data (including images from space) and organization of the delegation visit of the Institute to Astana.
At negotiations with the management of “Maersk Oil”company (a subsidiary of the concern A. P. Moller) already operating in Kazakhstan (Temir block, Aktobe region) V. Shkolnik was presented a draft of a floating drilling rig designed to work in shallow water (at a depth of 1,8 m). A distinctive advantage of this plant is its high environmental performance. Representatives of this company noted that subsequently the assembly of the above mentioned drilling rigs could be carried out in one of the Kazakh ports. Minister V.Shkolnik drew attention to the problem of cleaning oil pollution on the Kazakh coast, which aroused the substantive interest of the Danish side, which has the appropriate equipment and technology.
Minister of Agriculture S. Mynbayev visited the exemplary farm and milk processing company ARLA Foods, where he held talks on possible Kazakh-Danish cooperation in the dairy industry.
Proposals for bilateral cooperation were expressed by leaders with the participation of President N.A. Nazarbayev (by agreement with Ambassador D. Nielsen, these proposals will be sent in writing to the address of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the near future).
Visit of the President N.A. Nazarbayev was highly appreciated by the Danish press, which focused on the similarity of positions .
Kazakhstan also cooperates with Germany, France, Great Britain and other European countries.
As for direct investments, as of January 1 in 2003, 367 joint ventures or companies with 100% German capital were registered in Kazakhstan, of which about 200 were active. More than 120 representative offices and branches of German firms, most of which were located in Almaty, also carried out their activities in the republic. In addition, quite a few companies operated through Kazakhstan partners, giving them the right to market their products.
For two decades, thirty bilateral treaties have been concluded between Kazakhstan and the United Kingdom. A reliable foundation of cooperation has been created, aimed at the development of interstate partnership for the benefit of people of two countries for many years. On September 18-19, 1997, an international conference “Investing in Kazakhstan” was held in London, the main organizers of which were IBC UK Conference Ltd, the State Investment Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the UK.
At the opening of the conference, the State Minister of Commerce of Great Britain, Lord Stanley Clinton-Davis, spoke highly of the policy of the Kazakh government to attract investment. In his opinion, the sequence of economic reforms carried out in the country, the richest natural resources, the strategic position of Kazakhstan predetermine and promise him a great future in the XXI century .
During his visit to France in November 2012, N. Nazarbayev was greeted by Minister of Foreign Affairs of the French Republic, L. Fabius. During the meeting, prospects for the development of trade, economic and investment cooperation between two countries, the results of bilateral commission Nazarbayev-Hollande, as well as the possibility of visit of the President of France to Kazakhstan were discussed.
Parties also raised topical issues on the international agenda and key trends in the development of current economic situation in the world.
From 2005 to 2015 France invested in Kazakhstan around 11.4 billion US dollars .
On October 22 of 2012, during official visit to the Republic of Austria, the President of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev met with the Federal President H. Fischer. In the course of those negotiations in a narrow and enlarged staff, parties discussed the prospects for strengthening political, trade-economic and cultural-humanitarian cooperation between two countries, as well as topical issues on the international agenda. Following these talks, an Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Government of the Republic of Austria on the international road transport of goodswas signed. The President of Kazakhstan met with the President of the National Council of Parliament of the Republic of Austria, B. Prammer. The given meeting discussed issues of expanding political cooperation between Kazakhstan and Austria. Parties also noted the importance of developing contacts between the legislative bodies of two nations for strengthening inter-parliamentary ties. A meeting with members of the International Consultative Council was also held.
Presidents attended the opening of the Kazakhstan-Austrian business forum. Before this forum, the heads of state visited the exhibition of industrial companies in Austria, where they examined the Kazakh-Austrian business - projects. In his speech at the business forum, the President of Kazakhstan expressed confidence that the forum would make a significant contribution to the expansion and deepening of mutually beneficial relations between the business circles of both countries and invited representatives of the Austrian business to take part in the forthcomingVI Astana Economic Forum on May 2013.
Following the business forum, memorandums on the establishment of the Kazakhstan-Austrian Business Council; on cooperation between the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Economic Development Institute of the Economic Chamber of the Republic of Austria; on mutual understanding between the National Oil and Gas Company KazMunayGaz and the Austrian oil concern OMVwere signed. It is worth to note that in Kazakhstan there are about 10 thousand companies with the participation of foreign capital .
The idea of holding an international specialized exhibition in Astana was first voiced in Zaragoza in 2008. President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev announced the possibility of holding it. The exhibition in Zaragoza as well as in Korean Yeosu and Chinese Shanghai really proved to be true to the choice of this largest international event.
Official implementation of the idea of the Head of State began on July 1, 2010 at the General Assembly of the International Exhibitions Bureau, where it was announced about the start of the Kazakhstan bidding company. Further and during the entire preparation period, Nursultan Nazarbayev demonstrated the full support of the EXPO.
Large European companies such as Shell, VINCI Construction Grands Projets, Hamburg Messe and Congress GmbH, Solar Impulse took part in its implementation.
World Bank experts believe that good conditions have been created in Kazakhstan to attract foreign direct investment. In terms of business capacity, in 2012 Kazakhstan ranked 47th among 183 countries, overtaking Russia and Belarus .
According to the National Bank of Kazakhstan, from 2005 to 2012, about 136.78 billion US dollars of foreign direct investment were attracted to the economy of Kazakhstan, of which 59.5% were from mainly the mining sector. It is necessary to note that there is also the problem of outflow of investments abroad, for instance in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2011, it amounted to more than $32 billion. Almost 8 thousand enterprises with foreign capital are actively working in the Kazakh economy. These include Chevron, Siemens, General Electric and others. At the same time, bureaucracy, financial risks, and imperfect tax legislation hamper the attraction of foreign direct investment .
The Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (EPCA) between the EU and Kazakhstan was signed on 21 December 2015 in Astana and entered into provisional application on May 1 2016. The Agreement upgrades trade cooperation with a commitment to ensure the application of fundamental WTO rules and principles in bilateral trade relations between Kazakhstan and the EU. This will ensure a better regulatory environment for the economic operators in areas such as trade in services, the establishment and operation of companies, capital movements, procurement and intellectual property rights. Over the past decades, the EU has become Kazakhstan’s first trading partner with almost 40% of the total Kazakhstan foreign trade turnover in 2016 and first foreign investor, representing over half of total FDI in Kazakhstan. Bilateral trade of goods between the EU and Kazakhstan in Jan-Jul 2017 was worth euros 13.3 billion (31% increase as compared to the same period of 2016 according to Eurostat) .
In January-September of 2018, foreign trade turnover between Kazakhstan and the European Union amounted to $28.6 billion.This is 30 percent higher than the turnover of last year ($22 billion).Interestingly, Kazakhstan's exports to the EU were almost 5 times higher than imports: during the reporting period, exports amounted to $23.6 billion, and imports totaled $5 billion.The main EU countries importing Kazakh products were Italy ($8.8 billion in January-September 2018), the Netherlands ($4.8 billion), France ($2.7 billion), Spain ($1.5 billion) and Romania ($1.1 billion).
Thus, the EU's share in Kazakhstan's foreign trade is increasing: in 2016 it was 38.4 percent, but now it accounts for 41.9 percent of the total trade turnover of the country.At the same time, investments from the EU to Kazakhstan are showing growth. In the first half of this year, the EU countries invested $5.7 billion in Kazakhstan, which is 14.2 percent more year-on-year.The EU accounts for almost half of the country's total investment flows – 46.1 percent.The main EU countries-investors in the economy of Kazakhstan are the Netherlands ($3.8 billion in January-June 2018), Belgium ($797.5 million), France ($431.6 million), the United Kingdom ($292.9 million) and Germany ($145.6 million).
Thus, Kazakhstan and countries of European Union have been cooperating since the early 1990s in various sectors of the economy. European capital is represented in spheres like oil and gas industry, construction and transport. Foreign investment along with domestic ones gradually changed the structure of the economy.
The first inflow of investment funds was directed to the most important sectors - energy, transport and communications, agro-industrial complex. According to expert estimates, Kazakhstan’s economy in 1990s received more than 80% of all direct investments in Central Asia. European Union and the United States on the eve of 2001 recognized Kazakhstan as a state with a market economy.
Necessary prerequisites for the integration of Kazakhstan into global and regional economic processes were laid, priority directions for the development of a market economy were chosen. Agreements and Memorandums with EU financial institutions are the basis for long-term cooperation.
Kazakhstan is of serious interest to the EU because of its geo-strategic position, as well as its raw material potential, above all, its energy potential, the use of which can be an alternative to the sources of mineral raw materials of Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Western European countries are interested in stable and progressive development of Kazakhstan through the creation of democratic institutions, market transformations, and the strengthening of economic and political presence in Central Asia. In turn, Kazakhstan seeks to use the potential of EU to ensure economic and foreign policy security, integration into the global economy, including through the development of transport and pipeline routes, attracting investment, and gaining access to the latest technologies.
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17 Kazakhstan, EU increase trade by almost 30%, AZERNEWS 21 November 2018 https://www.azernews.az/region/141288.htmlDate: 07.03.2019.
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17 Kazakhstan, EU increase trade by almost 30%, AZERNEWS 21 November 2018 https://www.azernews.az/region/141288.htmlДата обращения:07.03.2019.
1тарих ғылымдарының докторы, қауымдыстырылған профессор
2Әлеуметтік ғылымдар магистрі
ҚАЗАҚСТАН-ЕУРОПАЛЫҚ ИНВЕСТИЦИЯЛЫҚ ЖОБАЛАР
Тәуелсіздік алғаннан кейін Қазақстан өзінің сыртқы саясатына кірісті. Көп жақты байланыстарды нығайту үшін Қазақстан Республикасы мен Еуропа арасындағы тығыз байланыстар орнады. Қазақстан Республикасының Президенті Н. Назарбаевтың еуропалық елдерге жасаған сапарлары біздің экономикаға инвестиция тартуға мүмкіндік берді. Еуропалық Одақ Қазақстан Республикасының сыртқы саясатында ерекше орын алады. Еуропалық бағыттарда Қазақстан экономикасына инвестиция және ынтымақтастық үшін оң алғышарттар жасалды.
90-жылдардың басында Қазақстан экономиканы реформалауға қатысты дилемма алдында тұрды. Осыған байланысты республика еуропалық елдермен қарым-қатынастың нормативтік базасын құра бастады. Қазақстанды жаһандық және өңірлік экономикалық процестерге интеграциялау үшін қажетті алғышарттар жасалды және басым бағыттар таңдалды.
Түйін сөздер: Қазақстан, Еуропа, дипломатия, саясат, экономика, инвестиция
1д.и.н., ассоциированный профессор
2Магистр социальных наук
КАЗАХСТАНСКО-ЕВРОПЕЙСКИЕ ИНВЕСТИЦИОННЫЕ ПРОЕКТЫ
С обретением независимости Казахстаном стала выстраиваться внешняя политика. Между Республикой Казахстан и Европой проходили интенсивные контакты по укреплению многосторонних связей. Визиты Президента РК Н. Назарбаева в европейские страны позволили привлечь инвестиции в нашу экономику. Европейский союз всегда занимал особое место во внешней политике Республики Казахстан. На европейском направлении были созданы позитивные предпосылки для сотрудничества и инвестиций в экономику Казахстана.
В начале 90-х гг. Казахстан стоял перед дилеммой, каким образом реформировать экономику. В этой связи Республика стала выстраивать нормативно-правовую базу отношений с европейскими странами. Были заложены необходимые предпосылки для интеграции Казахстана в глобальные и региональные экономические процессы, выбраны приоритетные направления.
Ключевые слова: Казахстан, Европа, дипломатия, политика, экономика, инвестиции