Мubarak Al-Kuwaiti, PhD Student of the al-Farabi Kazakh National University Almaty, Kazakhstan


«edu.e-history.kz» электрондық ғылыми журналы № 4 (16) 2018

Тегтер: персидский, Иран, названия, исторические, море, гидроним, Каспийское, язык, древние, источники
The article makes an etymological analysis and reconstruction of some names of the Caspian Sea, which allows us to identify common semantic patterns in the formation of these hydronyms. Keywords: Caspian Sea, hydronium, historical names, Iran, Persian language, ancient sources.

The northern sea or the Caspian Sea is a water column bounded south from Iran, from the north to Russia, from the west to Russia and from Azerbaijan, and from the east to the Republics of Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan.  The Caspian Sea was formerly part of the Tethys Sea connecting the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.

This sea, sometimes the largest lake in the world, and sometimes the smallest self-sufficient sea of ​​the planet, is the largest enclosed water zone in the dry. Its length is about 1030 to 1200 kilometers and its width is between 196 and 435 kilometers. The level of the Caspian Sea is lower than the sea level.

The northern part of this sea is very small. So that only half a percent of the seawater is in the north northern part of the sea and its depth is less than 5 meters in average. About 130 rivers flow into the sea, most of them from the northwest to the sea. The largest of them is the Volga River, which each year collects an average of 241 cubic kilometers of water into the Caspian Sea. The rivers Kura 13, Atrak 8.5, Ural 8.1 and Sulak 4 kilometers of cubic meters of water enter the sea annually [1].

The nature of the Caspian Sea has made it a unique place for animals and plants, but at the same time has made it vulnerable to agricultural and industrial and oil pollution. Of the important resources of the Caspian Sea, the reserves of oil and gas available under the sea bed, as well as sturgeon species, can be mentioned.

The lake is approximately 1200 km long and an average width of 320 km and an area of ​​438000 square kilometers and an area of ​​7,700,000 square kilometers is the largest lake in the world. The narrowest width is 220 kilometers between the peninsula of the Auscharan and the Cowley nose and its wider part is about 545 kilometers north of it, the shallowest area of ​​the lake is 25 meters in the northern region, and the deepest areas are located in the central and southern parts. It has a depth of about 900 to 1,000 meters in some parts of the country, the shores of the lake total 6379 kilometers, of which about 922 kilometers are located in Iran, and the area of ​​the basin is 373,3 thousand square kilometers, of which 256,000 square kilometers are located in Iran. has it . The lake is 28 meters lower than the ocean surface, so there are no exits from this lake. 81% of the Caspian Sea supplies the huge Volga River [2].

According to the state secretariat of the year 1381, the official name of the North Sea of ​​Iran is in the correspondence of the Persian Gulf of Caspian Sea and in the English Sea of ​​Caspian Sea [3]. However, the official and international name of the Northern Sea of ​​Iran in all languages ​​is Caspian and its equivalents. As many other geographic features are common in the world, different names have been used for this sea at different times, but the Hirkan Sea and Caspian Sea were historically more prominent [13].

Hircan / Gorgan Sea

The map of the province of Gorgan, which includes Gilan, Mazandaran, Golestan and rural districts (which includes areas of current Turkmenistan), including the Gorgan Sea.

The Gorgan Sea or the Watershed Sea is one of the two great names of the great Achaemenid lake in the Achaemenid period, as well as the Parthians, which is in fact a Satrapi (a townhouse or indeed a current governorate).

Caspian sea

According to Anatollah Reza, in the name of the name of the North Sea of ​​Iran, the name for the sea today is the Caspian Sea [5] Of course, Caspian is the European form of the name Caspian and is inconsistent with the principles of Persian language. Caspian / Caspian / Caspis / Caspish ... is a term used in many western languages ​​and even Hebrew for the northern sea of ​​Iran. Cassips were white people from the 2nd millennium BC to the Sassanid period, letters and references to their presence in the region. Caspian is a descriptive trait or relative in English and French for the Casspie. If we want to pronounce it in singular, with the Persian extension, we should say "Caspian" because of the "yay of proportion" and the incorporation of the Caspian form in Farsi is incorrect, as other countries express this sea with their suffix. The name of the Caspian Sea is Greek in Kaspia Thalassa, Latin Mare Caspium, and Caspian Sea in the German Caspisches see.


In none of the writings of eastern and western authors of the pre-Islamic period, there was no mention of the Caspian Sea on the northern sea of ​​Iran. In the writings of Islamic authors, this sea, along with other names, is called the Caspian Sea. At the beginning of the seventh century, the Khazaran people settled in the plains of the Turkish rivers, the Volga River and the northern Caucasus. In other words, this people lived in the northwest of this sea and the Black Sea. The Caspian Sea, along with other descendants of the northern Caucasus, during the Sassanid era, overcame Iran's land many times and, after short-term presence, were usually driven out of the Iranian borders by the Sassanid Corps. This people was always ally with Byzantium against Iran. The construction of large fortifications such as the city of Darband in the north of the Caucasus during the Sassanid era, which was carried out to prevent the Khazar, is still under way. And shortening the hands of Iranians from this sea goes back. Until the Arab invasion of the Caucasus, it is not known in the documents as the "Caspian Sea". But the fact that the Caspian was attacking the South Caucasus from the Kura River created the idea in the minds of the Arab conquerors that the northern sea was called the Caspian Sea. Black and Azov seas are called Khazar during the activity of the Khazar [6].

Sea of ​​Gilan

The oldest document in the name of the Sea of ​​Northern Iran, called the Sea of ​​Gilan, was the missing book "Khatta Nang" written in the sixth to seventh centuries, the end of the kingdom of the Sassanid dynasty.

Tabarestan Sea

The Tabarestan Sea is another name that has come from ancient sources. In documents from the Russian historical institutes it was stated that the young Zeus wrote in the twelfth century that the Iranians read this sea for centuries in the Tabarstan Sea, but since the word Mazandaran has been replaced by the Aboriginal tribes, it is the Mazandaran lake (Mazandaran lake). Despite the fact that the name Mazandaran is very ancient, but the name of the Caspian Sea has become popular for the first time in the last two hundred years. The name of the Caspian Sea and the Caspian Sea has been popular in the mass media in Iran for the past 50 years. In 1361, the government declared the name of the Mazandaran Sea the official name. But both names were used alternately. Second Conference of Geomatics Conference, May 2003. Organization of Surveying, Secretariat of the Committee for the Unification of Geographical Names [6].

Mazandaran Sea

Never was the name Mazandaran in the texts and works of the historians and geographers of this sea. Iranians are the only people who are called Mazandaran since 1316. The name of the Caspian Sea and the Caspian Sea has been popular in the media over the past 50 years. In 1361, the government declared the name of the Sea of ​​Mazandaran as the official name [7].

In the second seminar, the geographical names of 1382 were recognized by the top mapping organizations and received the first prize. In the scientific magazine, the extension of the message of the Sea in two issues Sept. 13, 2004 Sea Message, Issue Title: National Identity Documents

 It was published on December 13, 2004 under the title Caspian Gate and its translation into English from December, 83rd.[7].

For Persian Gulf titles and other printed materials. This party has not paid any institute or organization, newspaper or magazine. The published articles of this humble name are copied / printed and published by various authors. But I have no objection to their drinking, especially journalists.

 The necessity of uniform application of the name of the Caspian Sea (Mazandaran)

Contrary to the Persian Gulf signification, which has no ambiguity and has been known from the beginning of written history to all nations and nations with the names synonymous with the Persian Gulf and is considered to be the only name, the northern part of Iran, which today is in Mazandaran, Among the Arabic countries called Qazvin, it is known to the Caspian countries to the Caspian states and to the Caspian for Europeans and other nations.

 Since 500 BC, it has had many names and has been registered with different names and names with different pronunciations. This plurality and number of names is due to the existence of the tribes and towns around the sea. Since these tribes and cities have not had enough communication with each other because of the distance dimension, and each one was part of this sea, the sea was called the tribe or its neighboring towns.

At least 35 different names have been used for the Caspian Sea in historical sources and travel guides, historians and geographers of Europe, Arab, and Iran [9].

Early Greek historians such as Herodotus, Strabon, Ptolemy, and Aristotle have mentioned this sea with their names such as Hirkan, Caspian, Arcani, Arghaniya and Thapir. In the works of Islamic geographers and historians such as Ruby Hamwi, Hamza, Ibn Hawkil, Farsi, Massoudi, Hamdollah Mostofi, Ibn Fazlān, Shamsuddin Damashqi, Abolafda, Ibn al-Faqih Umran and Abouzid Balkhi are various names for this sea. From: Caspian Sea, Tabarestan, Bahr Qazvin, Gurjan (Gorgan), Akskun, Sea Coast or Dara Akhfhad (Sassanid time), Khorasan, Jali, Bahar al-Azh, Jabal, Bab al-Boubab and Noiry from Arab geographers called it Persian Sea or Persian basin. And the river Kerr (blind), which goes from Armenia, Abkhaz and Tbilisi, is called the most important river. Iranian geographers such as Khwarizmi, Khajeh Nasir Tusi and Hamdollah Qazvini have used various names for this sea, including Dilam, Bahram Ajam, Jilan (Gilan), Estherabad, Shirvan, Mazandaran, Moghan, Badkoba, Haji Torkhan, Vaurukush , Zarathustra (Golan, Golan, Tilsan, Kamrood and Armor of Ujistan) in the Avesta. Europeans, like Morgan, Philip, William Jackson and Drain, have used the names of Khalinsky, Astrakhan, Sarai, Sari, Zaraei Vervokasha (Zoroaster) and Pahlavi[10].

As we have seen, about forty names have been used for this sea, of which only two names are most commonly used: Caspian Sea, used by Turks, Arabs and Iranians, and CASPIAN SEA Caspian from the Greeks and Europeans , But the name of the Caspian Sea, as well as the Caspian name, which the Arabs have brought to Qazvin, have become more famous and famous, and the governments of Iran and Russia also have bilateral and international conventions over the past 250 years of these two names Caspian is a tribal name or two Iranian people and is the oldest name of the lake [11].

The Mazandaran name is not well-known for its historical and international reputation and has a local application.

In Shahnameh, Ferdowsi from the mountain of Mazandaran is named for many occasions, and the Persian Sea is described as an infinite sea in Makran to the city of Homiran (Yemen), but the name is not from the Sea of ​​Mazandaran.

The oldest map with the name Mazandaran is 210 years old (1214th Lunar), which is produced by Mohammad Reza Ghareh Chahi and has the name of Caspian and Mazandaran at the same time [12].

 In the year 1372, the Cultural Advisor of the Presidency in the letter No. 4701 / F dated January 15, 2003 informed the relevant authorities that in all correspondence and plans, the name of the Mazandaran was replaced by the Caspian, but nevertheless there are still doubts about the use the correct name for this is among the country's authorities. Since the current international procedure is the unification and unification of geographic names and is recommended in the resolutions and resolutions of the UN Conference on the Unification of Geographical Names, in which representatives of the 15 international organizations associated with mapping and geographic names are also observers. It is precluded from using multiple names for a geographic area. Therefore, the practice of the regional governments and cartographic organizations is the use of the Caspian and Caspian names, but can be added to the Iranian textbooks alongside the Khazar (Mazandaran) name [13].

However, it is suggested that for the final decision, this matter be raised and decided on in the Committee on the Unification of Geographic Names whose Secretariat is based in the Mapping Organization of the United Nations and notified to the Conference on the Unification of Geographical Names of the United Nations.



احمد بریمانی، دریای مازنداران، ج۱، ص۲۱.


اميراحمديان، جغرافياى درياى خزر، ص ۱۷.


لطف‌اللّه مفخّم پایان، دریای خزر، ج۱، ص۱۴۹ـ۱۵۱، ترجمه و تحقیق جعفر خمامی‌زاده.


کاکیم‌بیگ سالیکوف، «دریاچه‌ای با سرنوشت دریایی»، ج۱، ص۱۷۳.


اميراحمديان، جغرافياى درياى خزر، ص ۲۴.


شناخت دریای مازندران و پیرامون آن، پدیدآورندگان: فردوسی و دیگران، ج۱، ص۵۰ـ۶۸، زیرنظر کمال محمودزاده.


احمد کاظمی، وضعیت حقوقی دریای خزر: چالشهای فراروی ایران، ج۱، ص۸ـ۹، ۱۳۸۱ش.


Herodotus, The history of Herodotus, tr George Rawlinson, Chicago. 1952. 3-2.


ابن‌خرداذبه، المسالک والممالک، ج۱، ص۱۲۴.


اصطخری، المسالک والممالک، ج۱، ص۲۱۸.


ابن‌حوقل، صوره الارض، ج۱، ص۳۸۸.


مسعودی، مروج، ج۱، ص۲۷۳.


عبداللّه‌بن عبدالعزیز بکری، کتاب‌المسالک و الممالک، ج۱، ص۲۰۷.

Dr. Mohammad Ajam. Published in the Message of the Sea No. 32 and October 31, 2004

Мүбәрәк әл-Куати, әл-Фараби атын. ҚазҰУ PhD докторанты



Мақалада Каспий теңізінің кейбір атауларына этимологиялық талдау жасалынып, осы гидронимнің қалыптасуының заңдылығы дәлелденеді

Кілт сөздер: Каспий теңізі, гидроним, тарихи атау, Иран, парсы тілі, көне деректер

Мубарак аль-Куати, PhD докторант КазНУ им. аль-Фараби



В статье производится этимологический анализ и реконструкция некоторых названий Каспийского моря, что позволяет выделить общие смысловые закономерности в образовании этих гидронимов.   Ключевые слова: Каспийское море, гидроним, исторические названия, Иран, персидский язык, древние источники

Пікір жоқ

Пікір қалдыру үшін кіріңіз немесе тіркеліңіз