Abdallah al-Nouimat PhD Student of the al-Farabi Kazakh National University Almaty, Kazakhstan


«edu.e-history.kz» электрондық ғылыми журналы № 4(16), 2018

Тегтер: spiritual relations, history of religions., religion influence, religions, Islam
In this article, the author describes the current religious situation in the countries of Central Asia. The author also considers the level of influence of Islamic countries, such as Iran, on the religious situation in the region. Keywords: Islam, religions, religion influence, spiritual relations, history of religions.

In some geographic and historical sources, the two terms Central Asia and Central Asia have been used synonymously, while the Central Asian term is from a geographical region that is actually the central part of the Asian continent. The five independent states of Central Asia, the Caucasus, the western part of China, Kashmir, Northern Tibet, northern Pakistan, North Khorasan, and Afghanistan make up this part of Asia. In other words, Central Asia introduces the concept of geography, but Central Asia has a conceptual perspective. And the regime in the former Soviet Union used this term to eliminate the cultural and historical identity of this part of the Muslim world [1].

Historically, the region between the two sea rings (Sihoun) and the Amu Darya (Gjhon) of Transoxania, which long served as a major Khorasan, was under the control of the Iranian government. The Transoxiana included two autonomous political units of Khoyat and the Emir of Bukhara. Marw and Tajan were located in the south of the area. From the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Russians began to grapple with the region and seized massacres and hard pressures on the first block of the Kazakh territories. From the middle of the nineteenth century, the Russians continued to dominate over Transoxiana, Fergana Fertile Valley and Khatdan province for 20 years and only allowed Khiva and Bukhara to remain puppet areas. From the end of the nineteenth century to the early 20th century, Turkmenistan was seized by the Russians by attacking the Turkmen tribes and the massacre of the Tekeh tribe in Guk Thipa and surrendering tribes, and the border between Iran and the former Soviet Union was set up in the Ahal order [2].

It coincided with the October Revolution of 1917 and the utilization of communists in the three regions of Central Asia. The territories under the control of the Kazakhs, Khayyat Khanate and the Emir of Bukhara, known as the Russian Turkestan to all of these territories, were known in 1899 as the Turkestan Governorate. The eastern part, under the supervision of the Chinese, was known as Turkestan China, and this colonial nomenclature continued until several years after the Bolshevik revolution. In the culture of the Al-Nisiklopedik of Tsarist Russia, which was regulated between 1890 and 1904, this collection, which had an Islamic identity and dominated the spirit of Iranian culture, was described as Turkestan, and was spoken of in Transoxiana and there is no entry called Central Asia in this collection, but in 1957, when communists published the first Encyclopedia of the Encyclopedia, they first introduced the title of Central Asia. During the first seven years of the sovereignty of the new system, the Soviet leadership maintained the same former administrative divisions that were based not on ethnicity but on the basis of historical and geographical formations, and the government of the whole of the graves turned its name into the Republic of Kazakhstan, the entire Turkestan government It also became the autonomous republic of Turkestan on the same frontiers. The two bureaucratic governments of the Emirate of Bukhara and Khayyat Khayyah were also called the People's Republics of Bukhara and Khwarizm. But this unity of Turkestan was called Khwarizm. But this unity of Turkestan was transitory, and in 1924, Stalin divided the region into six nations on a tribal and linguistic basis, relying on every nation, so that he would never be willing to unite with another people, and to maintain his identity, the struggle between tribes continued. This process severely undermined the power of the political units and linked them politically and economically to the central government [3].

For the continuation of the riots and seizures in Central Asia, some of the Muslims of the Caucasus and beyond of the Caucasus have been displaced to several thousands of people for several reasons, with the aim of moving thousands of people to these places to avoid the difference between the new settlers and indigenous peoples.

Following the rise of Islam in Central Asia, the development of this religion in the territory of the aforementioned region continued with the development of social traditions, intellectual tendencies and ethnic practices, and the valuable foundations of this religion came from the wild tribes, well-meaning and right people. And the scholars of Fazil. Islam led it to discover the people of Central Asia, and instead of believing in the traditions of ignorance and superstition, idolatry and multiplicity of belief in monotheism. The spiritual power of Islam has brought about the unity of the tribes and resisted them against the influx of the hegemony. The people of this land, with the wonderful flourishing of the religion of Islam, turned to culture and thought, and by breaking the boundaries of ignorance, they showed their intellectual abilities and scientific genius, and the field of transfer of scientific defects among these tribes was interestingly provided.  Central Asia, with the benefit of the spiritual blessing of Islam, played an important role in the development of Islamic civilization. The two cities of Bukhara and Samarkand became the birthplace of the greatest scholars of Islamic and Iranian science. At the court of Samanids (in Bukhara), the first historical and religious texts that had good literary aspects, such as the oral history and the translation of Tabari's commentary and Tabari's history, arose. Abu Ali Sina, Farabi, Abu Rishin Biruni, Mohammad Bin Mousa Khwarazmi and dozens of other famous Daneshvarians who have been honored with the honors of the Islamic world and Iran have come from this area. Turning to Islam among the people of Central Asia and other Islamic countries, they created links beyond national, ethnic, historical, and linguistic conventions, and made religious beliefs obscure the political and geographical boundaries. Islam here plays a very valuable role not only as a common religion of the people but also as the most excellent embodiment of national independence and the most important factor in the identity of the people in the political and cultural life of the people. Central Asian Muslims, while tolerating the pressure of communist rule and violent boundaries between the tribes of this territory, as well as between Central Asia and neighboring regions, never fell apart, and Islamic culture was more inclusive, deeper, and deeper than being attacked Unconsciousness and absurd communist propaganda [4].

From the point of view of the communists, the era of Islamic culture in Central Asia has come to an end, and they have gone through this fictitious idea of ​​a very dangerous way to destroy Muslims. The mass exodus, the creation of sectarian differences, the elimination of religious distinctions, the confrontation between religious and ethnic groups, and artificial boundaries, including holistic prophetic propaganda, were methods of combating religious identity [5].

Since 1925, the confiscation of the endowments To analyze the economic potential of religious centers. At the same time, Islamic law (sharia) and religious traditions were attacked and after a few years until 1927, all the traditional Islamic tribunals were abandoned. Religious centers were closed down and around 8,000 schools and religious schools were completely suspended until the end of 1928. On the eve of the bloody revolution of October 1917, there were more than 26,000 mosques in Central Asia, which fell to 1300 bomber in the 1928 barbaric attack, which lasted ten years. At the time of Khrushchev and following his anti-Islamic policy, which began in 1953, the number of active mosques fell to 400.

The number of religious missionaries and clerics at the turn of the year 1927 was about 45,000, and the widespread invasion of 1928 against them began, and massive propaganda aimed at defrauding and credible accusations against them. Some as counter-revolution! And some are spies !! Japan and Germany were wanted and refined. In the relatively unknown period of 1953, the number of clerics fell to about 2,000. All of this was done in order to recognize the Homo Sovieticus, which was devoid of any religious or cultural identity [6]. But these violent political pressures and behaviors had a reversal effect, causing more zeal to Muslims, and Islam It was regarded as a contributing nation to the pressure of the Moscow government. The religious beliefs of the resistance came together and were a clear distinction between the Russians and the Muslims. Even the most part of the social and cultural tradition was not forgotten, and the respect for the elders, dressing and using food with religious attitude remained unchanged. The Marxist regime tried to separate one of the most important Muslim regions of the Muslim world from the corpus of the Muslim world, but the most resistance to Moscow's strategy of destroying the unity of Muslims from the Central Asian tribes took place, and even a group of Central Asian peoples with less cognition Islam was more or less attached to religious issues. With the residence of the exiled Caucasian and Tatars in the territories under their jurisdiction and the constant propaganda of immigrants, Islam became more interested in Islam in the past, and in the struggle against the Russians, the Islamic movements and movements Arranged.

The Ethno Socialzones of Central Asia have been the past four ways of encountering the four civilizations of China, India, the Islamic and Christian civilization, in the Middle Ages were the main commercial centers that are concerned with the discovery of sea routes by Central Asian landowners in Europe. The trade fell slowly and gave way to farming and animal husbandry. Over 200 years of domination of the tsarist government of Russia and the communist regime brought about major economic and political disasters for Central Asia, which had a negative impact on the development and growth of these countries, and unlike the rich resources and facilities available to them. The attention and reserves are considered to be one of the backward points. The Central Asian military-political Marxist system, the extraction of primary resources on a large scale, Central Asian economic and technological affiliation with central government, the suppression of culture and indigenous institutions, and planning for the production of crops needed by the factories, The boom was open. Zinoviev, a colleague of Lenin in the Soviet leadership in 1920, stated:

"We are not able to survive without the oil of Azerbaijan and Turkestan cotton, and we must get them." [7]

Such political policies and economic pressures led Central Asian countries to face real problems in the aftermath of the Soviet collapse in terms of political sovereignty and independence. Identification of the nationality, and the choice between the government with the effective interference of the agent of religion and the secular system, the conditions of poverty, illiteracy, population growth, the lack of matching political boundaries with the political divisions, the basic difficulties of these countries after blowing the breeze Independence on them. In the case of Central Asia, after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the West, three ideas were taken:

Western-style or Western-type panic of spreading Islam from the same source of Western understanding of Islam as a barrier to modernity.

2. Islam is controlled and removed from the text of the social life of the people.

3- A thought that looks more closely at Islam as a part of human values, but believes that it should be non-political Islamic thinking that none of these reflects the cultural and historical facts and religious beliefs of the people of this system [8].

Dr. Elizabeth Valkiner, of Columbia University, believes the West tends to work in non-Muslim Central Asia and, while lending technology and facilitating entry into the international community, is trying to implement this policy, he adds: If the crisis The domestic state of these countries will become deeper, the support and assistance of the West will not be sufficient, and the Islamic elements will be at the top of political affairs, and therefore the status of religion should be determined in political affairs [9].

Western political observers are heavily intimidated by Iran's political-cultural ties with Central Asia. The political, economic, and cultural quarrels of Central Asia began after the collapse of the Soviet Union under the tricks of the dominant powers. With the selection and emphasis on nationalism, ethnicity, and language, the governments of these countries, with the encouragement and cooperation of Europe and the United States, tried to prevent the spread of Islamic movements and trends and regional unions. On the other hand, the nationalists of Turkey tried to revive their old dream by promoting and promoting regionalist nationalism under the guise of the language and the Turanian land. By raising the issue of developing and supporting the secularization and modernization of Turkey as a popular example of the West, they called for the expansion of the influence of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Central Asia and the possibility of the formation of Islamic regimes in the region. In this regard, extensive efforts are being made to prove that the secular regime is the most beneficial solution, and the opening of the door to the West is the only solution to the problems of Central Asia. Also, in these countries, a homeland war against Islamic movements is underway on the pretext of confronting terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism [10].

The cultural and historical sharing of Iran with the countries of the Central Asian region dates back to a time when the countries of that region shared a common destiny with Iran. In the past, the geographic territory has caused these countries to adapt to the Iranian culture and traditions, so that today many customs and traditions, some of which have been forgotten even in Iran, which created those traditions. But it has remained in Central Asia. The basis of this work is based on positions that are strong enough or firmly established in the Islamic Republic of all Central Asian countries. There is no doubt about the necessity of religion for the people of Central Asia, because this religion is part of the history and culture of their millennia and ancestors and is an integral part of their social life.

Therefore, for these reasons, Iran does not form a long-standing relationship with the countries of the region, which makes it unpredictable. Although it tries to maintain the security of Central Asia, Iran does not penetrate Sunni extremist groups, which are usually supported by Saudi Arabia and some other countries, but does not undermine the security of the region. But the main task of the Islamic Republic of Iran at the current withdrawal stage Of political and economic isolation so that it can maintain its economic-political relations in the countries of the region. It also develops its cultural influence far beyond any political radicalism. Eventually, Iran will try to maintain geopolitical balance in Central Asia while maintaining its honest and honest relations.


1- حکومت مسکو و مساله مسلمانان آسیای مرکزی، مایل ریوکین، ترجمه ی محمود رمضان زاده، فصل چهارم.

2 سخنی چند درباره ی آثار معماری در سرزمین ماوراءالنهر، دکتر پرویز ورجاوند، مجله هنر و مردم، شماره 150.

3- پیوندهای فرهنگی ایران و آسیای میانه، دکتر نسرین حکمی، روزنامه اطلاعات ش 19769.

4- مسلمانان شوروی، صفحات 87 تا 89.

5-  آکینر، شیرین (1383)، "سیاسی گرایی اسلام در دوره پیش از شوروی"، مجله مطالعات آسیای مرکزی و قفقاز، تهران: دفتر مطالعات وزارت امورخارجه، سال 13، شماره 45.

6.  Akbarzadeh, S. (2003), The Islamic Dilemma in Uzbekistan, London: Routledge Curzon

7. Baran, Zeno. Starr, Fredrick and Cornell, Svante (2006), Islamic Radicalism in Central Asia And The Caucasus: Implications for the EU, John Hopkins University, Central Asia And The Caucasus Institute, Silk Road Studies Program Paper.

8. Jonson, L. ( 2006), Tajikistan in the New Central Asia: Geopolitics, Great Power Rivalry and Radical Islam, London: I.B. Tauris

 9. Abramson, David (2010), “Foreign Religious Education and the Central Asia Islamic Revival: Impact and Prospects for Stability”, Institute for Security and Development Policy, Johns Hopkins University.

10.  Peker, Gunden (Fall 1996), “Islam in Central Asia”, Eurasian Studies, Vol.3, NO.3.

Абдаллах  әл-Нуимат, әл-Фараби атын. ҚазҰУ PhD докторанты



Мақалада автор қазіргі Орталық Азия елдеріндегі діни ахуалға сипаттама беріп, Иран сияқты ислам мемлекетінің осы аймақтағы діни ахуалға қаншалықты ықпал етіп отырғандығын зерделейді.

Түйін сөздер: Ислам, дін, Иран, діни ықпал, рухани байланыстар, дін тарихы.

Абдаллах  аль-Нуимат, PhD докторант КазНУ им. аль-Фараби



В данной статье автор характеризует современную религиозную ситуацию в странах Центральной Азии. Также автором рассматривается уровень влияния исламских стран, таких как Иран, на религиозную ситуацию в регионе.

Ключевые слова: Ислам, религия, Иран, религиозное влияние, духовные связи, история религии.

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