Vietnam recognized the independence of Kazakhstan on December 27, 1991, diplomatic relations were established on June 29, 1992.
Currently, Vietnam has diplomatic relations with 179 countries, develops trade and economic relations with 224 countries and regions of the world. Vietnam is an active member of the most important international and regional organizations such as: the WTO, ASEAN, ASEM, ATEC, the Non-Aligned Movement, the International Organization for Cooperation of the French-speaking countries of the world (Francophone), etc.
In recent years Vietnam has played a prominent role in South-East Asia. The country has intensified contacts with many states, including the CIS. The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) signed an agreement with Vietnam on the creation of its first free trade zone (FTA) on May 29, 2015. In the same year, the SRV concluded several similar agreements, continuing to implement the agreements signed earlier. The experience of the formation of the FTA, accumulated by Vietnam for 10 years, is of both scientific and practical interest and can be usefully applied in Russia.
Theoretical analysis and understanding of the foreign policy priorities of Kazakhstan and Vietnam were carried out in accordance with the foreign policy concept of the two countries. In the article methods of historical, comparative analysis and generalization were used.
At present, a certain theoretical and practical experience has been gained in the field of research of cooperation of Kazakhstan with the subjects of the international community, which in recent years have occupied a certain niche in the system of regional processes. In this regard, we note the Asian vector of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy and contacts with countries of South-East Asia, including Vietnam. This state conducts successful economic reform.
In order to transform Vietnam into a modern industrial country, the Economic and Social Development Strategy for the period of 2010–2020 is being actively implemented, with emphasis on three breakthrough areas: improving the institutions of a market economy, accelerated development of human resources, and creating a modern and unified infrastructure system. Vietnam continues to develop rapidly and steadily, striving for set goals: prosperous population, strong state, democratic, fair and civilized society.
The historiography ofrelations betrween Kazakhstan and Vietnam are just beginning. Among domestic scientists involved in this problem, we can mention Tokhmetov A., Belasarov A. and Ashimbaev A..
Russian researchers such as Buyanov V., Tsvetov A., Lukyanov F., etc are also studying relationship of Vietnam and Russia.
Vietnam cooperates with New Zealand, Turkey, China, South Korea, India, Australia and the countries of Latin America. The country receives investments from many states, thereby strengthening its national economy. For example, the basis of Vietnamese exports to India is coal, rubber, steel, seafood, and other goods. Furniture, consumer goods are exported to Australia, fertilizers, footwear, vegetables and fruits to New Zealand.
With a capital investment of over $ 37 billion, Japan shares with South Korea first place in terms of investment in the Vietnamese economy. It became the main donor of Vietnam in the ODA program. Japan is building high-speed highways, a new terminal at Hanoi Noibai Airport (commissioned in 2015), two industrial zones in Haiphong and Vung Tau, reconstructing the Lahthüen seaport in Vung Tau, reconstructing the Läthüen seaport for ships with a displacement of over 100 thousand tons. Companies in this country received a contract for the construction of a nuclear power plant in the province of Nalstun.
By the end of 2015, it was planned to complete negotiations with the European Union, in which the European Free Trade Association EFTA also participates. The EU provides Vietnam with broad economic assistance, and in terms of turnover, it is the third largest partner after China and ASEAN, slightly ahead of the United States .
The legal framework between Kazakhstan and Vietnam is aimed at implementing practical contacts in various fields. The agreement between the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on cooperation in the field of culture and sports was signed on 05.29.2015
As the first exchange of high-level visits between the countries, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Nguyen Manh Kama visited Kazakhstan in February 1994. In June 1994, Prime Minister of Vietnam Vo Van Kiet paid an official visit to Kazakhstan. In September 1994, S. Daukeev, Minister of Geology and Mineral Protection, visited Hanoi (Vietnam).
February 21-25, 2000 a working trip of the Kazakh delegation to Hanoi took place, during which the final consent of the Vietnamese side was received to organize in early June the official visit of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. A. Nazarbayev to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The Vietnamese side handed a personal invitation from the President of the SRV Tran Duc Lyong to the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev to make a visit at a specified time.
As a result of the trip, negoyionations were held with the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Nguyen Zi Nyen, twice with the Director of the Department of Eastern Europe and CIS countries of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Bui Haq Bout, Director of the Protocol of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Din Xuan Liu.
The expediency of intensifying bilateral political and economic relations with Vietnam is undoubted. On the one hand, it was dictated by the country's growing prestige in the Asian region, which is achieved through substantial participation of SRV in ASEAN and in the development of the APR, on the other hand, progressively developing economies and expansion of foreign policy and trade relations with all regions of the world. During the meetings held, the leadership of the Foreign Ministry of Vietnam expressed great interest in the development of relations with Kazakhstan, as well as a positive attitude towards the wishes of Kazakhstan in cooperation with the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region and ASEAN. It was noted with satisfaction the interest of the SRV to continue its participation with the observation mission within the CICA. This was the first visit of the head of the Republic of Kazakhstan at the highest level to Vietnam, when some leaders of the CIS countries already made their visits to this country: Rakhmonov, Lukashenko, Karimov, Kuchma, Chernomyrdin.
The Vietnamese side proposed to conduct a visit in the first decade of June, taking into account the holding of a summit meeting within the framework of the Shanghai Five, which was tentatively scheduled for mid or late May, and also taking into account the country's climatic conditions.
It was supposed to sign the following documents:
In accordance with the preliminary agreement with the Vietnamese side and taking into account the experience of the CIS countries that had their Embassies in Hanoi (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus), the following bilateral documents were proposed for signing:
•Joint Declaration of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Socialist Government of the Republic of Vietnam on expanding bilateral cooperation;
• Agreement between the Governments of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on trade and economic cooperation;
• Agreement between the Governments of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on the promotion and mutual protection of investments;
• Agreement between the Governments of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on the avoidance of double taxation and prevention .
On April 17, 2009, in the framework of the Boao Forum for Asia (Hainan Island, China), the President of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev met with the Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Nguyen Tan Dung. On September 14-15, 2009, an official visit of the NRW Prime Minister Von Van Kiet to the Republic of Kazakhstan took place. On September 14-15, 2009, Prime Minister of the SRV Nguyen Tan Dung paid an official visit to Astana on October 30 - November 1, 2011, the official visit of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev to Vietnam took place. On September 24, 2011, in the framework of the 66th session of the UNGA, a meeting was held between the heads of the foreign affairs agencies, E. Kazykhanov and Pham Binh Min.
Since 2011, the Business Council has been operating between the Chambers of Commerce and Industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Vietnam. 6 meetings of the Kazakh-Vietnamese intergovernmental commission on trade, economic and scientific and technical cooperation (established in 1997) were held. On November 11-12, 2013, the 6th meeting of the Kazakh-Vietnamese intergovernmental commission on trade, economic and scientific and technical cooperation was held. The Kazakhstan delegation was headed by Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan K.Sh. Sarybai, the Vietnamese, and Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade, Le Duong Quang. Since October 2012, between the countries flights on the Almaty-Ho Chi Minh route have been operated. On September 10-11, 2012, the state visit of the President of Vietnam Truong Tan Sang to Kazakhstan took place.
On May 29-30, 2015, a working visit of the Prime Minister of the SRV Nguyen Tan Dung to Kazakhstan took place to participate in the ceremony of signing the Agreement on the free trade zone between the countries of the EEU and the Vietnam. On July 29-30, 2015, the Commissioner of the international specialized exhibition EXPO 2017, First Deputy Foreign Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan Rapil Zhoshybayev visited Vietnam.
Six ministerial consultations were held at the level of deputy foreign ministers. The last consultation took place in 2013 in Hanoi (Vietnam).
In recent years, intense high-level and high-level political dialogue has been maintained between Kazakhstan and Vietnam. The current dynamics of visits indicates a steady increase in the importance of the Asian direction of Kazakhstan's foreign policy. Our cooperation covers all new areas and is filled with practical content. “The main focus in the relations between Astana and Hanoi is on the active development of trade and economic cooperation, where there are already some positive results. For example, over the past 2 years since the opening of our embassy in Hanoi, there has been a sharp increase in Kazakhstan’s exports to the Vietnamese market, which has also affected the growth in turnover. Thus, the export of Kazakhstan from 1.7 million dollars in 2014 increased to 167.4 million dollars by the end of 2016. And this is not the limit, since in the first six months of this year, Kazakhstan’s exports to Vietnam have already reached $ 146.3 million. ”
It should be noted that in previous years, trade and economic relations between Kazakhstan and Vietnam were periodic. Individual enterprises of the republic supplied equipment, raw materials, fertilizers by single orders. The most stable ties wereestablished between the Alma-Ata Machine-Tool Building and Hanoi Mechanical Plants. Light industry products and goods of traditional export were imported from Vietnam to Kazakhstan. An agreement was signed "On the establishment of a joint venture for the cultivation and processing of lemon mint in the south of the republic, with the Pavlodar furniture factory - a protocol for the supply of blanks for furniture, veneer and parquet friezes. 
“Kazakhstan Temir Zholy” is carrying out purposeful work to create a transport corridor between Kazakhstan and Vietnam, which will give a tremendous impetus to the promotion of Kazakhstan's exports to the promising market of Vietnam with a population of over 93 million people, and in the future access to the markets of ASEAN countries with a population of over 600 million the person .
Kazakhstan and Vietnam have humanitarian connections though out many decades. Both nations have its own traditions that are interesting to other cultures. On September 10-16, 2012, the Days of Vietnam Culture took place in Kazakhstan, and on June 11-14, 2013, Days of Kazakhstan Culture took place in Hanoi. In 2012, the Abai Center for Science and Culture started its work at the Hanoi Pedagogical University.
In the context of cultural interaction, our university in January 2013 opened the Abai Center for Culture and Science at the Hanoi National Pedagogical University. In his welcoming speech, the Rector of KhNPU Nguyen Van Min noted that the opening of the Center is evidence of the strengthening of relations between our states and the great interest of the Vietnamese people in the culture of the Kazakh people. The leitmotif of this ceremony was the words of Abai "A person who has learned the language and culture of another nation becomes equal with him." Between the parties an agreement was reached on holding events aimed at acquaintance with the original culture and traditions of Kazakhstan.
On May 19, 2014, the Kazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abay, on occasion of the birthday of the first President of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh held the opening ceremony of the Vietnam Center for Culture and Education. The Vietnamese delegation, which took part in the opening of the Center, was headed by Professor Nguyen Manh Hung, Vice Rector of the Hanoi Pedagogical University.
As part of the intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the field of education (September 2009) and the Protocol on Amendments to the said Agreement (October 2011) regarding student exchanges, in 2014-2016 4 Kazakh students completed preparatory courses in Hanoi and 5 Vietnamese students in Almaty. Of the four Kazakh students who completed the preparatory courses, two continued their studies at the Diplomatic Academy of Vietnam in the bachelor’s program.
On June 10, 2015, with the active assistance of the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Vietnam, the leading state international information agency of Kazakhstan, Kazinform, and the Vietnam News Agency (VNA) signed a cooperation agreement aimed at establishing and developing information exchange links.
On February 2, 2016, the Ambassador of Kazakhstan to Vietnam Zhumakhanov B met with the President of Vietnamese television Chan Bin Ming in Hanoi, during which the Vietnamese side signed and handed to the Kazakh side a Memorandum of Understanding and Cooperation between the Republican TV and Radio Corporation "Kazakhstan" and the Vietnamese National Television (Vietnam Television, VTV). On March 14-15, 2016, the Vietnamese delegation headed by Central TV President (VTV) Chan Binh Minh paid a working visit to Astana, during which he met with the leadership of the Kazakhstan TV and Radio Corporation. The parties discussed the prospects for cooperation in the development of television, an agreement was reached to promote the cultures and traditions of the two peoples on the TV channels of Kazakhstan and Vietnam through the broadcast of feature films, documentaries and entertainment programs.
Currently, the parties are working to conclude agreements between leading cultural, humanitarian, scientific, technical and analytical centers, as well as leading educational institutions of Kazakhstan and Vietnam.
The book of the President of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev “Critical Decade” was translated into Vietnamese language. The book of the Secretary-General of the CPV Nguyen Phu Chong, Vietnam in the World of Renewal, has been translated into Kazakh. September 10-16, 2012, the Days of Vietnam Culture were held in Kazakhstan. On June 11-14, 2013, Days of Culture of Kazakhstan in Vietnam took place in Hanoi.
A new stage in the development of science and higher education in the Republic of Kazakhstan is associated with the transition to international standards, the improvement of the quality of education and the inclusion of Kazakhstani universities in world rankings. In the Kazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abay, systematic and active work is being carried out in the field of international cooperation. The opening of educational and cultural centers in foreign countries contributes to the implementation of joint scientific and educational projects, the development of training programs for students and undergraduates in the framework of academic mobility .
November 27, 2018. The Sustainable Trade Index 2018 prepared by the Hinrich Foundation was presented in Hanoi. The index assesses the readiness of 19 Asian economies, as well as the United States to participate in world trade at the same time supporting sustained economic growth and attracting foreign direct investment. The index uses 24 indicators divided into three groups: economic growth, social capital and environmental protection.
Among 20 countries Vietnam ranked ninth, rising by two points compared with 2016, when this study was conducted for the first time. The country managed to show a high degree of market openness, and in terms of social capital, Vietnam bypassed countries such as China, Thailand and Malaysia, which was made possible by reducing the property gap and improving working conditions in the country. In addition, the steady foreign trade policy of Vietnam has attracted the attention of foreign investors.
In order to maintain and improve its position, Vietnam needs to take measures against the reduction of labor force due to the aging of population, reduce infrastructure and logistics costs, as well as pay attention to over-deforestation and water pollution .
Therefore Vietnam plays significant role in regional processes.
Despite the geographical remoteness of Kazakhstan from Vietnam, both countries strive to strengthen their interaction and develop their potential. The basis of this policy is the friendly relations between the two peoples, as well as the agreements of the leaders of Kazakhstan and Vietnam. In Vietnam, we are well aware of our country, the initiatives of the President of Kazakhstan, and pin great hopes on further cooperation.
Vietnam sets the goal of achieving by 2020 the status of an industrial economy, modernizing the manufacturing industry and increasing the share of knowledge-intensive industries. Vietnam’s policy of industrialization in its goals and objectives, in turn, closely aligns with the new economic policy of Nurly Zhol, the main core of which is the Infrastructure Development Plan.
The successful implementation of these plans will allow the two countries not only to withstand threats and crises, but also to enter the top thirty most developed countries of the world by 2050.
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3 АP RK. F.7. Op.1. D.642. P.3.
4 https://www.inform.kz/ru/kazahstanskiy-eksport-vo-v-etnam-s-nachala-goda-sostavil-146-3-mln_a3059424 (Date of the appeal: 04.03.2019)
5 https://www.inform.kz/ru/kazahstanskiy-eksport-vo-v-etnam-s-nachala-goda-sostavil-146-3-mln_a3059424 (Date of the appeal: 04.03.2019)
6 Tokhmetov A.T. Kazkhatsani – Vietmanese relations: experience and perspectives // https://articlekz.com/article/18214 (Date of the appeal: 05.03.2019)
1 Мазырин В. Въетнам: зона свободной торговли // МЭМО. - 2016. - №3. - С.72-82.
2 АП РК. Ф.75-Н. Оп.1. Д.5878.Л.22-25
3 АПРК. Ф.7.Оп.1.Д.642.Л.3.
4 https://www.inform.kz/ru/kazahstanskiy-eksport-vo-v-etnam-s-nachala-goda-sostavil-146-3-mln_a3059424 (Дата обращения: 04.03.2019)
5 Тохметов А.Т. Казахстанско-Вьетнамское сотрудничество: опыт и перспективы проверить https://articlekz.com/article/18214(Дата обращения: 04.03.2019)
Айтмағамбетов Д.Р.1 т.ғ.к., доцент міндетін атқарушы, e-mail:email@example.com
Азмуханова А.М.2 т.ғ.к., профессор міндетін атқарушы, firstname.lastname@example.org
Нұрсұлтанова Л.Н.3 т.ғ.д, қауымд. проф. e-mail:email@example.com
Л.Н. Гумилев атындағы Еуразия ұлттық университеті, Астана қ., Қазақстан
Қазақстан және Вьетнам: ынтымақтастықтан тәжірибеге
Мақалада Қазақстанның Вьетнаммен көпжақты қатынастарының қалыптасуы мен дамуы талданады. Осы жылдар ішінде ынтымақтастықтың барлық салаларында заңнамалық және құқықтық база қалыптасты, экономика, әлеуметтік сала және мәдениет байланыстары дамып келеді.
Сауда-экономикалық және ғылыми-техникалық ынтымақтастық жөніндегі Қазақстан-Вьетнам үкіметаралық комиссиясының (1997 жылы құрылған) жеті кездесуі өтті. 2015 жылы 22-23 қазанда Астанада өткен 7-ші отырысында қазақстандық делегацияны Қазақстан Республикасының Сыртқы істер министрінің орынбасары А. Мусинов және Вьетнам делегациясының индустрия және сауда вице-министрі Хуанг Квок Вуонг басқарды.
Қазіргі уақытта тараптар жетекші мәдени, гуманитарлық, ғылыми-техникалық және аналитикалық орталықтар, сондай-ақ Қазақстан мен Вьетнамның білім беру мекемелері арасында келісімдер орнату жөнінде жұмыстар жүргізіліп жатыр.
Түйінсөздер: Қазақстан, Вьетнам, экономика, саясат, гуманитарлық қатынастар
Айтмагамбетов Д.Р.1 к.и.н., и.о доцента, e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Азмуханова А.М.2 к.и.н., и.опроф. e-mail: email@example.com
Нурсултанова Л.Н.3 д.и.н., ассоц проф. e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Евразийский национальный университет им. Л.Н. Гумилева, г. Астана, Казахстан
КАЗАХСТАН И ВЬЕТНАМ: ОТ СОГЛАШЕНИЙ К ПРАКТИКЕ
В статье анализируется становление и развитие многосторонних связей Казахстана с Вьетнамом. За эти годы сформирована законодательно- правовая база по всем направлениям сотрудничества, развиваются контакты в экономике , социальной сфере и культуре.
Проведено семь заседаний казахстанско-вьетнамской межправительственной комиссии по торгово-экономическому и научно-техническому сотрудничеству (создана в 1997 г.). На 7-м заседании МПК 22-23 октября 2015 года в г. Астана, казахстанскую делегацию возглавил заместитель министра иностранных дел Республики Казахстан Мусинов А.А., а вьетнамскую - Заместитель министра промышленности и торговли Хоанг Куок Выонг.
В настоящее время сторонами ведутся работы по заключению соглашений между ведущими культурно-гуманитарными, научно-техническими и аналитическими центрами, а также учебными заведениями РК и СРВ.
Ключевые слова: Казахстан, Вьетнам, экономика, политика, гуманитарная сфера.