Главная » Материалы » THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA IN SPIRITUAL REVIVAL KAZAKH PEOPLE IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY

Аhmetzhanova A.Т., Tasylova N.A.

THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA IN SPIRITUAL REVIVAL KAZAKH PEOPLE IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY

Электронный научный журнал «edu.e-history.kz» № 1(13), 2018

Аннотация:
Тegs: media, spiritual development, Alash, "Aikap", "Kazakh", the Kazakh people, the problems. The authors show the position of the Kazakh intelligentsia - publishers known in the early twentieth century the media, editors and authors of the magazine "Aikap" and the newspaper "Kazakh", on the spiritual revival of the Kazakh people in the imperial period of development of Kazakhstan. Outlined the main themes of publication media: public opinion, issues provoking debate and controversy, artworks of world and national figures, research of scholars on the history, culture, economy and prospects for the political development of the Kazakh territory, and articles that promote the idea of freedom.
Содержание:

Тegs: media, spiritual development, Alash, "Aikap", "Kazakh", the Kazakh people, the problems.

The authors show the position of the Kazakh intelligentsia -  publishers known in the early twentieth century the media, editors and authors of the magazine "Aikap" and the newspaper "Kazakh", on the spiritual revival of the Kazakh people in the imperial period of development of Kazakhstan.Outlined the main themes of publication media: public opinion, issues provoking debate and controversy, artworks of world and national figures, research of scholars on the history, culture, economy and prospects for the political development of the Kazakh territory, and articles that promote the idea of freedom.

Introduction

The media at all times played an important role in the spiritual development of the nation. At the beginning of the last century, the state of the population of Kazakhstan-the outskirts of tsarist Russia, was depressing, since in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the new policies of the Russian Empire led the impoverishment of the nation, and to stagnation of cultural development. Thanks to the revolutions in Russia, firstly in the first years 1905-1907, then in February 1917, an opportunity appeared to enter the historical arena of patriotic personalities who gave all their knowledge, strength and life for the spiritual renewal of their native people. In Kazakhstan there are Ahmet Baytursynov, Alikhan Bukeikhanov, Mukhamedzhan Seralin, Myrzhakyp Dulatov, Bakytzhan Karataev, Mustafa Shokay, Smagul Sadvokasov, MagzhanZhumabaev, TelzhanShonanov and many others. For the most part, they are known as state and public figures, educators, poets, publicists, scientists, reformers, media organizers.

The mass media and the Alash intelligentsia

Spiritual leader of the Kazakh people Ahmet Baitursynov, speaking at the first All-Union Turkic Congress in 1926, noted: "... before the revolution of 1905, we were not allowed to print anything in our native language to the Cossacks (in the text). Only after this revolution brochures, magazines, newspapers, textbooks began to appear in the Kazakh language. Next to this was work on the study of the nature of the Kazakh language from the phonetic and grammatical side .... We Cossacks, from the very beginning of the appearance of their printed word, began to stick to their principle, than others. We always had in mind the popular masses and tried to ensure that the works of the press were fully accessible to all - the more or less literate Cossacks, and through them illiterate. We tried to ensure that every thought thrown into the population could be picked up by everyone in order to generate in the mass interest in knowledge and charge it with consciousness for a correct understanding of the surrounding reality "

Also, Ahmet Baytursynov and his supporters believed that the newspaper was for the people "eyes, ears, soul and heart" [2], therefore at the beginning of the 20th century considerable efforts were made to publish newspapers and magazines in their native language. So, in 1907 several issues of "Kazakh Gazeti", "Serke" and "Dala" were published, but the tsarist government closed them. The initiators and organizers were J. Andreev, E. Imanbaev, M. Dulatov, H. Ibrahimov [3, p.174-175]. Later other newspapers were published, more significant and with a longer period of activity. Since 1911, the first magazine with the original name "Aykap", a socio-political and artistic-literary direction began to be published in Troitsk. The editor was Mukhamedzhan Seralin-writer, journalist. There were 88 issues. In his address to the readers of the magazine, in the first issue, for 1911 he wrote that newspapers and journals are certainly necessary for the people. On the level of development, he is judged by the extent to which newspapers, magazines and books are distributed among them. Further explained, in spite of the fact that the government has already closed several newspapers, he hopes for the support of his native people and prepares the issue of a small magazine "Aykap". The publication was published once a month with an approved program for the publication of materials: external news, news and examples from the lives of Muslims, satires, books, advice on science, letters from readers and various things. Materials were accepted in Kazakh, Nogai, Russian and Turkish. M. Seralin explained the name of the magazine. Muhamedjan Seralin explains why the magazine was called "Aykap", so there are many opportunities for doing important things in life, but we do not always use them. Understanding is coming after, and we begin to doubt and upset why I did not act then. Therefore, he calls on the Kazakh population to act now, then not to regret "kap" - "oh," what I did not do when I had all the conditions for accomplishing a particular mission [3].

As noted by scholars, journalists, philologists, political scientists and historians, the publication gathered famous personalities who radiated for the future of their native people. Therefore, on its pages it was possible to find answers to questions concerning common culture, language, literature, ethnography. The editor of the magazine found opportunities, according to the authors of the works, to publish both scholarly research of scientists and problematic ones, as well as orders and instructions from the government, the observance of which was difficult for the Kazakh people. Printed in the journal positions of the public, which provoked debate and disagreement.For example, well-known disputes about the land, where the position of the Alashian intelligentsia-publishers of the newspaper "Kazakh" and the employees of the magazine " Aykap" was reflected.

According to the researchers, the magazine "Aykap" as one of the well-known media in the early twentieth century, played a significant role in the cultural and educational development of the Kazakh people. To the deep regret of numerous readers, due to financial problems, the magazine closed in 1915.  The intensification of oppression of Kazakhs by tsarist Russia aroused discontent of local, Islam-prone population, especially spiritual ministers - mullahs, Ishans and Kazi, as the most literate and conscious part of it. They bravely opposed the activities of the imperial administration, believing that they lead to spiritual poverty of the people, hinder the preservation and development of traditional religion, national culture and native language. Therefore, the great success of the "Muslim movement was the development of the periodical press in the languages ​​of the Turkic peoples. Only in the Tatar language were published more than 50 printed editions. These are the newspapers: Ulfat, Vakhyt, Yuldyz, Millet and others. In 1907, as an annex to the Tatar newspaper published by Ibragimov in St. Petersburg, two issues of the Kazakh newspaper Ulfat and Serke appeared, in which M. Dulatov's poem addressed to Kazakh youth was printed and a small article "Our goal" for signature "argyn". The appearance of these publications made a stir in the ruling circles of tsarism "[4, p. 49-50]. On the pages of Tatar publications published articles and materials revealing the state of the Turkic peoples within the imperial Russia and the call for unity of the Turks. Also, materials were published on the opening of schools, the publication of newspapers and magazines in their native language, on the equality of peoples, on freedom of religion. It is known that in the consolidation of a pleiad of outstanding people of the early twentieth century, an enormous role was played by the newspaper "Kazakh" (1913-1918), where all the problems of the Kazakh society of that time were covered. In one of the issues of the newspaper, the editor-in-chief and ideological inspirer of Kazakhs, Ahmet Baitursynov, wrote that the main goal of the newspaper was "to protect the interests of the masses, to promote the spread of science and culture among the Kazakhs, to introduce the life and achievements of other peoples." The circular order dated December 9, 1905, No. 14508, Governor-General of the StepnoyKrai of Sukhomlinov, stated that A. Baytursynov had received permission to issue a weekly newspaper "Kazakh" (Kirghiz) in the Kazakh language in Orenburg [5, p.542-543]. It was prescribed to publish it according to the following program: directions and government orders; the work of the State Duma and the State Council; external and internal issues; history and way of life of Kazakhs; ethics, history, ethnography and culture; public education; hygiene, medicine and veterinary medicine; local chronicle and others.

The mass media representatives paid special attention to the issues of the spiritual development of the Kazakh people. The pages of the newspaper printed literary works of eminent authors: M.Yu. Lermontov, L.N. Tolstoy, V.G. Korolenko, A. Baytursynov, M. Dulatov, E. Bukeikhanov, etc. Studies of scholars on the history and culture of the Kazakh people were published, as well as articles promoting freedom-loving ideas and revealing the problems of educating, enlightment,  upbridging and strengthening the health of the population of the region. For example: "Zhazumuselei", "TilYar", "Karyq Mysal "," Belim Zharysy "," Bas Yosu "," Yeginyegu "," Aura zaiynan "(Ahmet Baitursynov)," Ruhani Madeniet Karaulynan"," Without aura "," Ashyat hut "," Kara  kipsyshak kobylandy "(Alikhan Bukeykhanov)," Oyan, Kazaq"," Zhazu zhoninde "," Elim-ai "," Shukyrt "," Okushylarga zhardem"(MyrzhakypDulatov)," Tamyr dari kaqynda " , "Zhukpaly auru", (KhalelDosmukhamedov) and others. The main publications on the pages of the newspaper "Kazakh" were subject to the idea of ​​independence of the Kazakh people, which was inconceivable without raising the cultural status of the population. Therefore, the Alashic intelligentsia called upon its readers "... to strive for education and a common culture with all the resources and tools; for this ... the first thing to do is to develop literature in the native language "[6]. A significant place in the newspaper "Kazakh" was occupied by the authors' research devoted to the problems of history, religion and literature, works on the modernization of the Kazakh language and writing. For example, "Kazakh Tarihi", "Din Talasy", "Kazakh", "Kazah zhayy", "Belim Zharysy", "Oryshsha  okushylar", "Kalyn mal alu", "Alashty talents of azamatyn", "Tүrik tilinin uly galymy V. V.Radlov"," Zhazu maselesi "," Emlet Turasynda ", etc. Many issues related to education, science, and the development of the Kazakh language have not lost their significance at the present time. For example, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan NA.Nazarbayev in his message to the people of Kazakhstan "Kazakhstan" Strategy - 2050 ". The new political course of the state "stressed that:" Responsible language policy is one of the main consolidating factors of the Kazakh nation. The Kazakh language is our spiritual core. Our task is to develop it, actively using it in all spheres. We must leave our descendants in inheritance a modern language in which the experience of many generations of our ancestors would be harmoniously added to our track. This is a task that every self-respecting person must solve independently. The state, for its part, does much to strengthen the positions of the state language "[7]. It is important to remember that in the first issue of the newspaper, information was given that materials written in any language were accepted for publication, as one of the main goals of the newspaper was the dissemination of knowledge and experience of the people who succeeded in education and science.

One can not help but emphasize the huge role in the preparation and publication of the newspaper "Kazakh" by Ahmet Baitursynov, the editor-in-chief, the author of the first textbooks for teaching in his native language: OyuYarali, TilYarli, "," Madeniet Tarihi ","Adebiet tanytkysh" and methodical manual "Bayanshi "; the founder of Kazakh linguistics, the researcher of Kazakh oral literature ("23 Zhoktau ", "Yer Sayyn"), the reformer of Kazakh graphics on the basis of Arabic. He is one of those who worked tirelessly for the good of his people. For education and guidance in the further life of the Kazakhs, on November 21, 1917, the "Draft Program of the Alash Party" was published in the newspaper "Kazakh", for No. 251. The authors of the document were: Alikhan Bukeikhanov, Ahmet Baytursynov, Myrzhakyp Dulatov, Yeldes Gumarov, Esengali Turmukhamedov, Gabdulkhamit Zhundibayev, Gazimbek Birimzhanov. Thus, two chapters of the document were devoted to the spiritual development of the native people. This is the fourth (On religion) and the ninth (On education and science) sections of the program. The document clearly defines the positions of the Alashian intellectuals in the religious sphere, such as the need to separate religious affairs from state affairs, affirmation of freedom of religion and clarification of the duties of the mullah, and the decision to create a separate mufti for the Kazakh population. The ninth section examined the issues of education and science: "The doors of educational institutions are open to all and the education is free; compulsory education applies to all. In primary schools, teaching is conducted in the native language; Kazakhs create secondary schools and a university in their native language; the system of education is autonomous in the form of autonomy: the authorities do not interfere in the affairs of education; teachers and professors are appointed on a competitive basis; libraries open in the people's environment "[8]. Employees of the newspaper, being highly intelligent individuals, have written and published a plan of action for many years. The main provisions of the program document are relevant at the present time.

The newspaper also published articles revealing the state of literacy of Kazakhs and features of teaching in the Kazakh language. In them, the authors expressed their opinion about the need to study Russian language too, ie. state language, along with the Kazakh language  . One of the leaders of the Alash intelligentsia, active author and assistant editor in chief of the newspaper "Kazakh" Myrzhazyp Dulatov, shared his opinion with readers in 1909 as follows: "In order to defend our rights in the world, to preserve our land and livestock, before others, we must learn Russian and master the arts. It is necessary to know the Russian language without fail, in order to avoid harm from ignorance of it. This can be seen from the following: in Russia there are over one hundred and forty million people, speak in one hundred and nine languages, including Russian, Russian has supremacy, all state institutions work in this language, as well as laws "[9]. All the enlighteners of the Kazakh people, from the end of the nineteenth century, called for the study of the Russian language as the dominant in the Russian Empire and at the same time as an acute necessity in everyday life.  The newspaper "Kazakh" considered raising the cultural level of teachers, developing methodical manuals for them, and developing a harmonious, comprehensively developed personality [10]. A well-known publication, the entire population of the region, called for striving for study, mastering knowledge, art, craft. Find your place in life. Explained the need for spiritual development of the individual, promoted morality, honesty, nobility and pointed to the prospects for improving the situation of Kazakhs.

Authors of publications in the newspaper wrote that the state of the Kazakhs by the beginning of the twentieth century was deplorable. The proof is the report of Shmit - the Governor-General of the Steppe Region, in 1911, pointing out "the imperfection of ... the existing communal system, the defects of the current exploitation of the land" [11, p.105]. Further, arguing about the resettlement of landless peasants from European Russia and giving them land, showed that "cattle breeding gives the population a more permanent income. The trade in livestock and livestock products is dominant here. " For example, in 1910, livestock was exported from the Akmola region to European Russia and abroad by 6 million rubles. and livestock products by 30 million rubles. These products went mostly in the form of raw materials, although in the province, despite a very poorly represented manufacturing industry, there are sink lard factories, oil, intestinal and others - only 399, engaged in processing raw materials extracted from cattle breeding, with a turnover of more than in 1 500 000 rbl. And further concluded that "this development of the trade in livestock products points to the great importance of this branch of agriculture in the life of both the local old-timer population - the Kirghiz, peasants and Cossacks, and the newcomers - migrant peasants" [11, p. 95-96]. The document shows that the imperial administration, in the person of the head of the Steppe region, understood by the beginning of the 20th century that the traditional cattle-breeding farm of the Kazakhs was the basis of their livelihoods. But she did not want the indigenous population to enjoy it. However imperial administration did not understand the material and spiritual culture of the Kazakh people that emanated from this activity. This attitude of tsarist Russia to the nomadic population led to the fact that in the cultural development of the Kazakhs lagged behind other peoples inhabiting the Russian Empire. The Kazakh intelligentsia, knowing this and with the purpose of rendering assistance to the native people, organized the release of the popular newspaper "Kazakh", since people deprived of means of subsistence are not easily able to think about spiritual, in general, cultural growth. The newspaper, indeed, as well as its glorious representatives of the Alash intelligentsia understood, became "the eyes, ears and language of the people", "served the people", "spread knowledge to the people", "was the spokesman of the truth," thereby contributing to the spiritual revival of the Kazakh territory in beginning of the twentieth century. The organizers and leaders of the media were known to all the Kazakh people both during the tsarist and Soviet times. The heads of government also spoke of them, as prominent figures. For example, the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Kazakh SSR V.S. Radus-Zenkovich at the I Kazakhstan Party Conference of the RKP / b / in Orenburg, June 13, 1921 in his speech stressed: "As for the old Bukeikhanov - he is the best connoisseur of the region. It must be used skillfully. His influence, maybe, continues to be influenced by an ordinary technical worker, but he is so quickly oriented in the local environment, which is of great help. He is a real encyclopedist about the Kyrgyz way of life, the history of the region in general. No books can replace it. We should have more such workers, of course, provided that we directly supervise and control. Even at the All-Kyrgyz Congress, we called the Kyrgyz intelligentsia to combat illiteracy and the darkness of the masses. We tried to take into account all literate people to use them in educational work ... "[11, p.103].

Of particular interest is the position of the main ideologist of the Soviet state of the early twentieth century, the Party General Secretary I.V. Stalin. He, stressing the need for the reorganization of the publication "Akzhol" pointed out that non-partisan intellectuals should be involved in Soviet work, as well as "to the cause of planting the Kyrgyz culture. The compilation of textbooks in the Kyrgyz language is the main field on which these people should be used in the field of culture. But I strongly oppose that non-partisan intellectuals engage in political and ideological upbringing of the Kyrgyz youth ... "so that the Chokaev can not win. [11, p. 194.]. The opinion of the leader of the Communist Party shows how a socialist state was fearful of the spiritually rich figures of the Kazakh people, therefore, in every way hindered their fruitful work in the media as a powerful ideological weapon. Employees of the newspaper "Kazakh" honestly worked until 1918. With the establishment of Soviet power, the most important media for the Kazakh people, ceased its release. The world's first socialist state was formed. The creators of the media were in disarray and disappointed. Prospects for the democratic development of Russia, and, together with it, the state "Alash" were interrupted by the October 1917 socialist revolution. Newspapers and magazines of a different direction and establishment began to be published.

Conclusion

At the beginning of the 20th century, the main "mass media" that helped the Alash intelligentsia to realize the important goal of spiritual revival of the Kazakh people were the magazine "Aykap" and the newspaper "Kazakh", revealing the issues that were necessary for the cultural growth of the Kazakh population of the region: opportunities for each ethnos, including the Kazakh people, to preserve their language, literature and religion. The well-known organizers of the mass media became spiritual leaders of the Kazakh society, fostering the unification of the patriotic forces of Kazakhstan by their fruitful activity, created a national seal capable of helping the native people in their spiritual revival.

References

1. Baytursynuly A. Bes tomdyk shygarmalar zhinagy. – 4t. Alippeler men makalalar zhinagy.(Tote zhazudagy tungysh alippeler zhane ulttyk baspasozdin negizin kalagan kosem sozder). – Almaty: «Alash», 2006.

2. «Kazak»  gazeti. Alash azamattarynyn rukhyna bagyshtalady. -  Almaty: «Kazak entsiklopediyasy» Bas redaktsiyasy,  1998. 

3. Kambar Atabaev. Kazak baspasozi. Kazakstan tarikhynyn derek kozi (1870-1918).- Almaty: Kazak universiteti, 2000.

4.  Zhakypbek S.K. Religiozno-politicheskoe dvizhenie v Kazakhstane v nachale KhKh veka. Vestnik KazNU. Seriya istoricheskaya, № 3, 2004.

5. Alashorda: Fotoal'bom. – Almaty: «Orkhon», 2012.

6. Ibraymov K.Sh. Akhmet Baytursynov enbekterindegi terminologiya zhәne stilistika mәseleleri. Almaty, 2004. Mashkanova N.G. Akhmet Baytұrsynov – kazak zhazuynyn reformatory. Almaty, 1994. Turgaraeva G.M. Akhmet Baytursynovtyn kogamdyk-sayasi zhәne memlekettik kyzmeti. Almaty, 2009 i dr.

7. Poslanie Prezidenta Respubliki Kazakhstan – Lidera Natsii N.A. Nazarbaeva narodu Kazakhstana «Strategiya – 2050». Novyy politicheskiy kurs sostoyavshegosya gosudarstva». 14 dekabrya 2012 goda. Kazakhstanskaya pravda, 15 dekabrya 2012 goda. 

8. Alash kozgalysy. Kuzhattar men materialdar zhinagy. Dvizhenie Alash. Sbornik dokumentov i materialov. T.1.-  Almaty: Alash baspasy, 2004.

9. Kazakhstanskaya pravda, 29 noyabrya 2010 goda. 

10. Akhmet Baytursyn. Bes tomdyk shygarmalar zhinagy. –Almaty: «Alash»,  2002,  2004. 2006. 

11. Alash kozgalysy. Kuzhattar men materialdar zhinagy. Dvizhenie Alash. Sbornik dokumentov i materialov. T.3.-  Almaty: Alash baspasy, 2004.


Мақалада авторлар ХХ ғасырдың басында танымал болған қазақ зиялыларының Қазақстанның империялық кезеңіндегі рухани жандану мәселесінде БАҚ, «Айқап» журналы және «Қазақ» газеті редакторлары мен авторларының көз-қарасын көрсетеді. Бұқаралық ақпарат құралдарының жарияланған негізгі тақырыптары белгіленген, олар: талас-тартыс тудырған көпшіліктің пікірі, әлемдік және ұлттық қоғам қайраткерлерінің шығармалары, ғалымдардың тарих, мәдениет, экономика мен қазақ өлкесінің саяси даму келешегі жайлы зерттеулері, сонымен қоса, бостандық идеяларын насихаттайтын мақалалар. 

ТегтерБАҚ, рухани даму, Алаш, «Айқап», «Қазақ», қазақ халқы, проблемалар.

РЕЗЮМЕ

В статье авторы показывают позиции казахской интеллигенции - издателей известных в начале ХХ века СМИ, редакторов и авторов журнала «Айқап» и газеты «Қазақ»,  по вопросу духовного возрождения казахского народа. Обозначены  основные темы публикации средств массовой информации: мнения общественности, вызывавшие дискуссии и разногласия, произведения мировых  и  национальных деятелей, исследования ученых по истории,  культуре, экономике и перспективах политического развития казахского края, также статьи, пропагандирующие свободолюбивые идеи.

ТегиСМИ, духовное развитие, Алаш, «Айкап», «Қазақ», казахский народ, проблемы.


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