IMANALIEVA E., ¹Master 2 st course, specialty "history".Kazakhstan, Almaty.


Электронный научный журнал «edu.e-history.kz» № 1(21), 2020

The urgency of a theme of researchcaused by necessity of development of historiographical aspects of actual problems of history of Kazakhstan, and for objective reconsideration of many pages of Kazakh-Russian relations in ХVI-ХVIII centuries from positions of new methodological approaches in a domestic historical science. As one of modern conceptual installations in studying history of Kazakhstan the withdrawal from consideration of historical processes in a vein of exclusively “Russian” and “Soviet” history and the set ideological imperatives that was characteristic for the Soviet historiography of problems of Kazakh-Russian relations. In conditions of independence of Republic of Kazakhstan on the foreground, only left insufficiently known and not studied aspects of this difficult and inconsistent problem. Studying of historical experience of mutual relations of two neighbor nations has as well a political urgency for definition of prospects of cooperation of Republic of Kazakhstan and Russia in new political and social-cultural conditions of independent existence. Keywords: historiography, empire, colonization, commercial relations, diplomacy.

Introduction. At the beginning of the XVII century, Kazakh Khanate was reinforced and strengthened, so the message about strengthening the country spread to neighboring countries and reached Europe.The reason of strengthening of Kazakh Khanate is that during the reign of Kasim Khan the western part of Kazakh Khanate stretched from the Volga to the Urals and became the most powerful state in the Eurasian steppes. In those days, to be an ally with such a powerful Khanate was necessary for every country.

The study of the Kazakh Khanate’s international relations in the 17th century with neighboring countries, but particularly withShaybanids from Maurenahir-Transoxiana, Iranian Sefevises -Dowlat-e Safaviyye, Moghulistan, Nogai horde is the important issue in these days[Materials on the history of the Kazakh Khanates, 1961: 127].

Materials and methods. In the process of studying mentioned issue, we used data from the medieval sources of Kazakhstan’s history, to be more specific from the handwriting resources of the dynasties: Temіr, Shaibani, Astrakhan, Safavids and the Nogai Horde. Additionally, we used Russian and European evidence related to Kazakh history.

  Discussions. In fact, among those who initiated research in this area, we must definitely mention S. Ualihanov. He explored the historical problems of the Kazakh Khanate in the XV-XVI centuries, using a variety of materials in his research, the emergence of the Kazakh people, the emergence of the Kazakh Zhuzov, the tribal structure and their location.[Valikhanov Ch.Ch., 1961: 779].

  The history of the Kazakh Khanate in the XVI century and its political relations with neighbor countries were first mentioned in the scientific works of V.V. Velyaminov-Zernov.  He included the data of some Eastern authors in his scientific works[V.V. Velyaminov-Zernov, 1864: 22].

In the studying the medieval history of the Kazakh Khanate, it is very important to consider the works of V.V. Barthold[Bartold V.V., 1968: 21-106]. He analyzed the political, socio-economic and cultural history of Central Asia in the XV-XVIII centuries on the basis of Eastern data on the political relations of the Kazakhs with neighboring countries.In addition, V.V. Barthold added a lot of raw data to scientific use.

  This topic is also reflected in the research of A.P. Chuloshnikov [Chuloshnikov A.P., 1924: 120].A special feature of this work is the author's special emphasis in the political relations between the head of the Kazakh Khanate, as well as with the rulers of Maurenahir-Transoxiana, Moghulistan, and the Nogai Horde.

  The history of the Kazakh Khanate and its political relations with neighboring countries is generally considered by M. Tynyshpaev [  Tynyshpaev M., 1993 : 221]. The historian S. Asfendiyarov briefly explains this issue in his books[Asfendiyarov S., 1993].

  In the study of the history of Kazakhstan and Central Asia in the XV-XVI centuries, there is a significant contribution of researchers such as P. Ivanov and A. A. Semenov. P. Ivanov investigated the relations of the Kazakhs with their neighbors in the south and their relationship in the XIV-XVI centuries with Deshti Kipchak and Maurenhahr-Transoxiana [Ivanov P.P., 1958]. However, in the works of A.A. Semenov's relations between Dashti-Kipchak and Maurenhahr - Transoxiana in the XV-XVI centuries are studied as a special historical issue [Semenov A.A., 1954].

  Kazakh oriental historians’ works such as S. K. Ibragimov, V. P. Yudin, K. Pishchulin, and other works are very important for our topic. To be more specific, in many of his works S. K. Ibragimov studies and represent data about Shaibanids from the XVI century for the scientific world[Ibragimov S.K., 1956: 152].

  Kazakh orientalist V.P. Yudin played a major role in the study of the history of the Kazakh Khanate in the XIV-XVII centuries.He paid attention to the translation of the Eastern texts in the period under study, which paid little or no attention, and to some details that were unknown to science. Many data were included in the scientific circulation thanks to V.P. Yudin [Yudin V.P., 2001: 388].

  In the article, K. Pishchulina studied the importance of cities along the Syrdarya River in the XV-XVI centuries for the Kazakh Khanate on the basis of data from Eastern chronicles and archaeological materials.For the first time, the author considers the steps and progress, the nature and causes of the struggle between the Kazakh Khanate and Mauronnahra governors of a Syrian city at the end of the XV century[Pishchulina A.K., 1969 : 49 ].

The research work of T. I. Sultanov on the issues we are considering is very valuable to us.It takes into consideration  the history of the Kazakh Khanate in the XV-XVI centuries, the structure of the Deshti-Kipchak, the economy of the Khanate and provides information to each Leader of the Kazakh Khanate. The author pays great attention to the social and political structure of the Kazakh Khanate and political relations with neighboring countries [Sultanov T.I., 2001].In recent years, he collaborated with S. G. Klyashtorny to describe the political relations of the Kazakh Khanate with the neighboring countries as a whole [Klyashtorny S.G., Sultanov T.I., 1992].

The overwhelming number of historian M.Kh.Abuseytov's works are devoted to the problem of political relations of the Kazakh Khanate in Maurenhahr- Transoxiana.

His works mostly explore the internal and external political situation and diplomacy of the Kazakh Khanate.The problem we are considering is the era of the struggle between the Kazakh Khanate and the rulers of Maurenhahr- Transoxiana. for Turkestan, which has 100 years of history, and the same events are studied in the works of M.Kh. Abuseitova[Abuseitova M.Kh., 1985: 104].

  Although he does not deal with the issues we are considering, the historian A.Khasenov has valuable information about our problem.In his study, S. Zholdasbayuly examines some issues of Kazakh-Uzbek relations, analyzing the historical data of M.Kh.Dulati [Zholdasbayev S., 2000: 102].

  Scientific works and articles of the historian-scientist B.K. Karibaeva, who specializes in this problem, is very valuable for us.There the history of the Kazakh Khanate in the XV-XVI centuries was thoroughly analyzed, its political relations with the neighboring Maurenhahr- Transoxiana. were shown, and the internal and external political situation in the Kazakh Khanate during the “temporary weakening” of Kasim-Khan was demonstrated, as well as valuable information was discovered[Karibayev B.B., 1999: 102].

  Historians who were able to study the political history of the Kazakh Khanate in the XV-XVI centuries, were carefully studied with written, oral, archaeological data. Abdildabekova, E.D. Tleuova, G.E. Sabdenova, N.Atygaev, J.E. Zhappasov [J.E. Zhappasov, 2014: 200] and other works on this problem provide valuable information.

  Results. The Kazakh Khanate in the beginning of the XV-XVI centuries positioned itself in the international level as an independent country that is recognized by other countries. These details reported in the data about diplomatic missions with the eastern and western countries.In particular, the XVI-XVII centuries were noted in the History of Kazakhstan as a special period because during these times the Kazakh Khanate was strengthened, the military-political, cultural and trade relations with the neighboring countries that influenced our history were strengthened so much.

  In the XV-XVII centuries, the history of the Kazakh Nationality was closely connected in all branches of life with the peoples of Central Asia.Between these countries were peaceful times and military skirmishes.The connection between Kazakhstan and the countries of Central Asia was established from ancient times.There were diplomatic and trade ties between these countries.the materials of historical trade roads which were collected during expeditions to the steppes proved that Kazakhstan is a link and a bridge to the self-improvement and self-development of Eastern cultures.In the XVI-XVII centuries, the diplomatic and trade ties of Kazakhstan were not only with the countries of Central Asia, but also developed with India and Afghanistan.

  These days the great attention is paid to the study of ancient routes of the Silk Way, which crossed the territory of modern Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Additionally, in the second half of the XVI century, this path received a new impetus.According to the manuscripts in the XVI-XVII centuries, it is known that trade and military communication between China, India and Central Asia was established through Kazakhstan.Trade was conducted through the Caspian Sea which is located between Astrakhan and Mynzhylky.But, in eastern historical materials there was no data about this trade link.Nevertheless, other data from Eastern authors allow us to track the frequency of trade.

  Trade and military ties and the war between the Kazakh people and their neighbors continued unabated. But the war greatly influenced the development of the Kazakh people.

  For example, the most active foreign policy of the Kazakh Khanate was conducted under the rule of Kasim Khan(1511-1518) and the goal of foreign policy was to achieve the profit. The words "profit" implied the conquest of new lands, because that the outward authority and strength of the country shown by their territory.For this reason, starting with Zhanibek and Kerey and all the other Kazakh rulers tried to conquer new territories.In general, the rule of Kasym Khan influenced the political situation of the Kazakh Khanate with good efforts, primarily in connection with the struggle with the country of the Shaybanids.In the early years of the rule of Kasim Khan in Kazakhstan and Central Asia, a number of cases occurred which reinforced the rule of the Khans.XVI century was a very important stage for the development of Kazakh diplomacy and in the formulating  Kazakh Khanate as a military country. Moreover, it was a moment of crisis for Kazakhstan with its internal, economic and social relations.This had a significant impact on the country's international relations.It became difficult for Khans to save all the conquered lands, the opponents of the Kazakhs began to actively organize unions  against  the Kazakh Khanate.When Khaknazar Khan came to the throne in the second half of the 16th century, this event began to be decided in favor of the Kazakh Khanate.At the same time, during the reign of Khaknazar Khan (1548-1580), the main focus was on the cities that were located near Syrdariya and were centers of trade.For the sake of these lands, the Kazakhs first fought with the Shaybanids, then with the Ashtrakhanids.The relations between the Kazakhs and the Shaibanids were very close and versatile.Shaibanid Abdullah Khan II noticed the strength and power of the Kazakh Khanate and wanted to use good relations with the Kazakhs to conquer their enemies through the power of the Kazakh Khanate.Due to this situation, an oathly union took place betweеn Shaybanids' Khan and Khaknazar khan. They had to maintain peaceful relations between themselves.Acknowledging the success of Khaknazar Khan’s policy, Tauekel Khan (1583-1598) achieved a number of victories.We should mention the name of Tauekel Khan in a special way, because he brought the interdynadial marriage and military-political alliance into the practice of the country.For example, he was the first Khan who created an alliance with Russia and managed to make an agreement with them. Later it was created coalitions with the Shaibanids, the Nogai rulers and so on .One of the most promising agreements for peace and reconciliation was the document 1598-1599. between the Kazakh Khanate and the Ashtarhanid country.

  Conclusions. The history of the Kazakh Khanate of the 15th century is of great importance in the complex history of the Kazakh people for many centuries.Because, the first step of independence, which for centuries has dreamed of the Kazakh people, who were again on the historical scene, determine their territory for further development and strengthen the state and establish relations with neighboring countries.

  Thanks to the steppe laws and strong diplomatic skills, the Kazakh Khans managed to keep the Kazakh statehood in the center of the Great Steppe with strong neighborly relations.


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Е. ИМАНАЛИЕВА¹,«Тарих» мамандығының  2-курс магистранты. Әл-Фараби атындағы ҚазҰУ. Қазақстан, Алматы қ. 



Зерттеу тақырыбының өзектілігі Қазақстан тарихындағы маңызды мәселелердің тарихнамалық аспектілерін зерттеудің қажеттілігімен, XVІI-XVIII ғғ. қазақ-орыс қарым-қатынастары мәселесін отандық тарих ғылымына тән жаңаша методологиялық тұрғыда қарастырылуымен анықталады. Соңғыонжылда XVІI-XVIII ғғ. қазақ-орысқарым-қатынастары мәселесіне қатысты көптеген еңбектер жарық көрді, олардың біразында Ресейдің рөлін жоғарылатып, Қазақстанды төмендету тұрғысында жазылғандықтан, оларды қайта қарап, жаңаша методологиялық тұрғыда талдау қажет. Бүгінде отарланушы ел ретіндегі идеологиядан арылған кезінде Қазақстан ғалымдары арасында осы мәселеге қатысты әртүрлі көзқарастар мен пікірлер туындады, олардың кейбіреулері тіпті бір-біріне қарама-қайшы. Бірақта бүгінде қазақ және орыс халықтары арасында ғасырлар бойы жалғасқан байланыстардың нәтижелері Қазақстанның ұлттық тарихнамасы негізінде қайта  р кезеңде, әртүрлі тарихи жағдайларға байланысты өзгеріп, өзіндік күрделі кезеңдерден өтті, оны обьективті зерттеп, ғылыми бағасын беру болашақта екі ел арасындағы қарым-қатынастардың бағытын анықтап, дипломатиялық байланыстардың шымылдығын түре түсуге көмектесері анық.

Түйін сөздер: тарихнама, империя, отарлау, экономикалық қатынастар, дипломатия.


¹Магистр 2-го курса, специальность «История».КазНУ имени аль-Фараби . Казахстан, г. Алматы. Е-mail:erensiz_talgat@mail.ru


Актуальность темы исследования обусловлена как необходимостью разработки историографических аспектов актуальных проблем истории Казахстана, так и для объективного переосмысления многих страниц казахско-русских торговых отношений ХVIІ-ХVIII вв. с позиций новых методологических подходов  в отечественной исторической науке.Одной из современных концептуальных установок в изучении истории Казахстана является отход от рассмотрения исторических процессов в русле исключительно «российской» и «советской» истории и заданных идеологических императивов, что было характерно для советской историографии проблем казахско-русских отношений. В условиях независимости Республики Казахстан на первый план выходят малоисследованные и неизученные аспекты этой сложной и противоречивой  проблемы.Изучение исторического опыта взаимоотношений двух соседних народов  имеет также и общественно-политическую актуальность для определения перспектив сотрудничества Республики Казахстан и России в новых политических и социокультурных условиях независимого существования.

  Ключевые слова: историография, империя, колонизация, экономические отношения, дипломатия.

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