Главная » Материалы » МРНТИ УДК 314.04:393 С50 THE STUDY OF BURIAL RITUAL OF THE KAZAKHS OF KAZAKHSTAN AND OMSK REGION IN THE XIX – XX CENTURIES

B. SMAGULOV, Ch.Ch. Valikhanov Institute of History and Ethnology, Candidate of Historical Sciences, Ass. Professor, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

МРНТИ УДК 314.04:393 С50 THE STUDY OF BURIAL RITUAL OF THE KAZAKHS OF KAZAKHSTAN AND OMSK REGION IN THE XIX – XX CENTURIES

Электронный научный журнал «edu.e-history.kz» № 3(19), 2019

Теги: traditional culture, funeral rite, cemetery, Kazakhs, Omsk
Автор:
The article is devoted to the study of the burial rite of the Kazakhs of the Omsk region and Kazakhstan in the specified period of time. The article analyzes the works of Russian and Kazakh researchers related to our topic. The features of the study of the burial rite in various regions of Kazakhstan and the south of the Omsk region are considered. The work also shows the role of local historians in the study of individual aspects of the burial complexes of the Kazakhs of the Omsk Region, in particular, cemetery planigraphy, prohibitions related to their stay in the cemetery.
Содержание:

Introduction. A consistent study of the ethnography of the Kazakh population on the territory of the modern Omsk region and in the northern regions of Kazakhstan, including the burial rite, began in the second half of the 19th century, and the beginning of this study is associated with the name of Ch. Ch. Valikhanov (Захарова, Томилов. 1995: 5). Ch. Ch. Valikhanov wrote a number of works related to our topic. There, among them should be noted his article “On the Kirghiz-Kaysak graves (moles) and antiquities in general”, in which the main types of grave structures of the Kazakhs were considered. In addition, attention is paid to the technique of manufacturing turf bricks from which such structures were built. Ch. Ch. Valikhanov, considering the features in the location of the graves, notes the following: “Graves are always arranged on elevated places, caravan and nomadic roads, and near a river or lake. This is done with the goal that the traveler could read a prayer (batu– blessing) that is special over the ashes”(Валиханов, 1984: 192–193). Describing the gravestones of the Kazakhs, Ch.Ch. Valikhanov notes that some of these structures have significant dimensions: “The immensity of him (in the Kazakh. – B.S.) is the first condition for the greatness of the object, and the graves of such forms are arranged over the ashes of important and rich Kirghiz-Kaisaks (Kazakhs. –B. C)” (Валиханов, 1984: 191). In his other works, certain aspects of the topic under consideration were touched upon (Валиханов, 1984, Т. 1: 163–172; 198–200; 228–254; 280–286; 208–215; Т. 2: 48–70; 71–76; 90–100). Ch. Ch. Valikhanov also paid attention to the collection of folklore materials. In particular, texts of funeral laments were found in his archive (Валиханов, 1984, Т. 1: 255–272), and the text of the famous poem “KozyKorpesh – Bayan Sulu”, recorded by him in the early 1850s, was subsequently published by prominent Russian orientalists. In 1877, the West Siberian department of the Russian Geographical Society (RGO) was opened in Omsk (Захарова, 1988: 34; 1990: 26). The staff of this department wrote a number of works on the ethnography of the Kazakhs, but the works that covered our topic came out a little later.

Results and their discussion. In February 1886, on the meeting of the general meeting of the West Siberian Department of the Russian Geographical Society, full member M. A. Shestakov made a speech in which he justified the need for a more active study of the culture of the Kazakhs in Western Siberia, noting that “a detailed study of the most interesting in this regard (ethnography and anthropology.– B. S.) of the people – Kirghiz (Kazakhs. – B. S.) was somehow left aside” (Шестаков, 1886: 2). M.A. Shestakov wrote: “The nomadic culture lived and improved; nomadic life, the stage of humanity that gave rise to whole cultures, from the viewpoint of which a peculiar Asian civilization was formed, completely different from sedentary-cultural with its induction and experience“ (Ibid.). Speech by M. A. Shestakov found support from members of the department. As a result, in February-March 1886, an expedition was organized by the West Siberian Department of the Russian Geographical Society, during which M. A. Shestakov visited 24 Kazakh villages in Omsk district, where materials on ethnography and anthropology of Kazakhs of this territory were collected, including information on the burial rite (Шестаков, 1886: 3). In one of the reports of the West Siberian department of the RGO there is a mention that at the meeting of the members of this department M. A. Shestakov made a report in which he gave a description of the burial site of the Kazakhs in the territory he surveyed (Ibid.). Unfortunately, our search for the materials of the MA. Shestakov expeditionnot crowned with success.

In 1894 an article by V. K. Shne“Winterings and other permanent structures of the nomads of the Akmola region” (1894), in which descriptions were given of the Kazakhs' grave structures in the northern regions of Kazakhstan and the south of the Omsk region. V. K. Shne made several remarks about the features in the structure of the graves and the tomb structures. In addition, he drew attention to the features in the location of the graves. In particular, he noted that “at winterings in woodlands they are grouped somewhat together, without taking on the character of a common cemetery; in the treeless steppe, these graves, as well as winterings, are more crowded” (Шнэ, 1894: 14).

In 1898, the West Siberian Department of the Russian Geographical Society, together with the Zoological Department of the Imperial Society of Natural Science Lovers, organized an expedition to study lakes in the south of the Omsk district of the Akmola region. According to the results of this expedition in 1901, the work of L. Berg and P. Ignatov “Salty lakes Selety-Dengiz, Teke and Kyzyl-Kak of Omsk district” (1901) was published, in which brief descriptions of the graves of Kazakhs who lived in these Lakes (Берг, Игнатов, 1901: 85–86). In particular, it was noted that if in the open steppe areas, Kazakhs more often build tomb buildings using turf, then in forest-steppe areas, log and wooden tomb buildings are common: “They (various types of landscape. – B.S.) ... put its imprint on the external situation of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh. – B. C), forcing him to obey the conditions of nature” (Берг, Игнатов, 1901: 86). The brevity of the descriptions of the Kazakhs 'grave structures themselves is explained by the fact that, according to the participants of this expedition, their tasks" did not include special ethnographic studies” (Берг, Игнатов, 1901: 83).

Since the beginning of the XX century the scope of work on Ethnography of Kazakhs in the territory of modern Omsk region fell sharply. During this period, only in the above-mentioned work of the “Tombs of the Kyrgyz steppes” there are small mentions of the features in the arrangement of graves of the Kazakhs of Northern Kazakhstan and the South of the Omsk region (Кастанье, 1911: 78).

Thus, it can be noted that the works devoted to the study of the funeral rite of the Kazakhs of the southern regions of the Omsk region of the late XIX – early XX centuries are few, fragmentary and brief. As for the quality of these works, the well-known researcher of the culture of the peoples of Kazakhstan, Central Asia and Western Siberia I. V. Zakharova writes the following: “in the published articles, the description, simple presentation of the material, private conclusions prevail. But it is a fruit of conscientious and careful collecting work and as a source it has a high degree of reliability” (Захарова, 1988: 35).

In subsequent years, the study of the funeral rite of the Kazakhs on the territory of the modern Omsk region practically ceased.

The 1930s-1960s were marked by the activities of Omsk local historians, whose archives preserved materials on the culture of various ethnic communities in the Omsk region. Among them can be called Sergei Romanovich Laptev (1891–1967), who was one of the famous historians who devoted his life to the study of history, culture and nature of the Omsk region. During his numerous trips to the Omsk region and Northern Kazakhstan, he collected material on the ethnography of the peoples of these territories, including the Kazakhs. In 2001–2002 in the State archive of Omsk region in the Fund R-2118 we have found materials of personal archive of the researcher, which cover the period of the late 1940s–1960s, This field diaries and manuscripts of the researcher, as well as photo albums of the forwarding routes. In S. R. Laptevʼsarchive the most part of ethnographic materials on culture of Kazakhs of Omsk region is devoted to the description of their cemeteries in the specified territory. Materials of S. R. Laptev include mainly notes, drawings and observations made by him when visiting Kazakh cemeteries. In 1949. together with the head of the Department of botany agricultural Institute N. Plotnikov and candidate of agricultural sciences M. Kargapolov S. R. Laptev went on a trip to the southern regions of Omsk region. Preserved his report on this trip called “650 km in the southern regions of the Omsk region and North-Eastern Kazakhstan” (ГАОО. Р-2118. Оп. 1. Д. 19). This report contains information on the ethnography of the Kazakhs, including notes on the funeral rite. During his trip he visited one of the cemeteries of the Kazakhs and noted some of the prohibitions associated with staying in the cemetery. So, S. R. Laptev writes: “The Kazakh cemetery-like all Muslims-is a sacred place. Walk on him not only Russian, not permitted and Mohammedan. M. S (Kargapolov. – B. C.) said he was still in the village said not to go to the cemetery, talked about it and our host-guide” (ГАОО. Р-2118. Оп. 1. Д. 19. Л. 26). In 1957–58 S. R. Laptev visited the territories along the left Bank of the Irtysh river. Omsk to the South to Kazakhstan and Kurumbel steppe, as well as lakeEbeity. In the course of these visits was also collected ethnographic data on Kazakhs (ГАОО. Р-2118. Оп. 1. Д. 21, 23, 28, 29, 30). S. R. Laptev in his research was not limited to the territory of the Omsk region. In 1957, he also visited the Burabay in Northern Kazakhstan, where they were viewed by the gravestones of structures of Russian and Kazakh people of the area. S. R. Laptev noted: “I have made a fair number of photos from these monuments, as well as from the nearby Russian cemetery” (ГАОО. Р-2118. Оп. 1. Д. 28. Л. 85). Archives of S. R. Lapteva also includes the album, which has photographs of gravestones structures of the Kazakhs (ГАОО. Р-2118. Оп. 1. Д. 33. Л. 28, Д. 34. Л. 7, 10, 18, 20).

In General, it should be noted that the information on the funeral rite of the Kazakhs of the Omsk region, contained in the notes of local historians, are fragmentary, but it should be taken into account that they did not set out to explore in detail the ethnography of the Kazakhs of the designated area. If we consider that we have large gaps in the study of the funeral rite of the Kazakhs in the territory of the modern Omsk region in the period of 1920–1970-ies., even a brief information of local historians are of particular importance.

Since the mid-1970s, the rise in the study of the ethnography of the Kazakh population of the designated territory began, which was associated with the formation of Omsk State University and ethnographic expeditions to the Kazakh settlements in the Omsk region. The first works on Ethnography of Kazakhs of the designated territory were devoted mainly to their ethnic history (Лапузина, 1984: 182–184; Проваторова, 1984: 180–182; Томилов, 1988: 19–21; and others).

In 1989 O. M. Bronnikova published an article “Reflection of ethnic processes in the field of spiritual culture of the Kazakhs of Western Siberia” (1989), in which for the first time attention was paid to the funeral rites of the Kazakhs in Omsk region. In particular, O. M. Bronnikova identified the main types of burial structures of the Kazakhs of this territory, as well as a general description of the actions taken in the burial of the deceased (Бронникова, 1989: 89–98). In 1990, in the work of Z. E. Kabuldinov “Funeral rites of the Kazakhs of Omsk Irtysh region” (1990) for the first time the question was raised about the family-related principle of burial of the dead in the Kazakhs in the territory under consideration (Кабульдинов, 1990: 46–47). In the 1990s, several works of Sh. K. Akhmetova were published, in which various aspects of our topic were touched upon. In 1992 her work “Traditional funeral rites of Kazakhs of Omsk city” was published. Omsk” (1992), which describes the main actions taken in preparation for burial, burial and for a certain time after the burial of the deceased (Ахметова, 1992: 13–16).

In the 1980s–1990s during archaeological surveys in the areas of settlement of the Kazakhs in the territory of the Omsk Region, Omsk archeologists noted some points in the planigraphy of the burial complexes of the Kazakhs. They recorded the facts of the territorial binding of a number of Kazakh cemeteries to earlier burial grounds. So, in 1983, during the archaeological expedition of Omsk State University under the leadership of S. V. Sotnikova burial ground was fixed in the Novovarshavka district of the Omsk region, which occupied the northern part of the cape of the terrace, which was 12 m in height and, as noted, “is partially located on the territory of an abandoned Muslim cemetery, also located on this cape” (МАЭ. Ф. 154 1.Д. 36-1. Л. 8).

Thus, summing up the study of the burial rite of the Kazakhs on the territory of the modern Omsk region in the late XIX – XX centuries we can note that although during this period a few works on this subject came out, they were somewhat general in nature. But, nevertheless, several problems were posed in the published papers which we tried to solve in this study.

Next, we consider the issue of studying the funeral rite of the Kazakhs in the territory of the modern Republic of Kazakhstan.

The purposeful study of the ethnography of the Kazakhs in Kazakhstan began in the XIX century, when several centers emerged in which such work was carried out (Omsk, Orenburg, Tashkent). Nevertheless, even earlier various aspects of our topic were touched upon in the works of researchers. Thus, in I. G. Georgi we find a mention of the custom that existed among the Kazakhs to tear off the clothes of the deceased and distribute its pieces to people “his friends” (Георги, 1799: 532). In P. S Pallas, some variants were noted in the orientation of the deceased in the gravel pit. In particular, he speaks about the frequent cases of the position of his head to the north (Паллас, 1786: 586).

A major researcher of culture and history of the Kazakhs of the first third of the XIX century was A. I. Levshin, whose fundamental work “Description of the Kirghiz-Kazak or Kirghiz-Kaysak hordes and steppes” (1996) has not yet lost its scientific value. His work consists of several parts, one of which is devoted to ethnographic subjects. Of particular interest is that part of the description of the burial rite, where it is said that Kazakhs previously had a form of mourning the deceased “before a doll or a dummy who, dressed in a dress of a deceased, serves crying instead of his image” and as A.I. Levshin mentioned “the last custom more exists in some parts of the Middle Horde” (Левшин, 1996: 339).

In 1887, the Orenburg Scientific Archival Commission was established, which worked closely with the Orenburg Department of the Russian Geographical Society, opened in 1886. Six joint meetings were held in 1911, most of which were devoted to the discussion of reports on the burial rite of the Kazakhs.

The authors of the reports were I. A. Castanier, A. L. Anikhovsky, I. V. Anichkov and others. Among these researchers, I. A. Castanier who wrote several works on this topic, should be singled out. One of his most significant works, “The Tombstones of the Kirghiz Steppes” (1911) was published in Russian and French in 1911. In it, I. A. Castanier gave a description of the funeral rite of the Kazakhs, considered the features in the structure of the graves. Speaking about the burial of the deceased, I.A. Castanier writes the following: “... the grave prepared in advance took in the remains of the deceased, dressed in his best clothes” (Кастанье, 1911: 26).

Thus, I. A. Castanier notes several features in the burial rite of the Kazakh people, which subsequently disappeared. It should be noted that his work is based on a large number of field materials. It is equipped with a large number of drawings depicting the grave structures of the Kazakhs.

The works of some researchers were published in the “Izvestia…” of the Society of Archeology and Ethnography at Kazan University. So, in 1897, A. A. Divaev’s work “Ancient Kirghiz funeral customs” (1897) was published in this edition, in which the author examined the main points related to the burial rite of the Kazakhs. Note that in this work we find one of the last references to the existence of the Kazakhs custom of scratching the deceased man’s wife’s ownface to the blood (Диваев, 1897: 181).

The funeral rite of the Kazakhs in the northern regions of Kazakhstan received coverage in the work of employees of the West Siberian department of the Russian Geographical Society. In particular, “Travel notes, kept during a trip to the Kokchetav district of the Akmola region in 1878” (1881) I. Ya. Slovtsovʼs work was published in 1881. It described the burial rite of the Kazakhs in the northern regions of Kazakhstan. Particularly, I. Ya. Slovtsov notes that “graves are digged out in common cemeteries near winter quarters; in the summer, they choose places for this that differ in beautiful surroundings” (Словцов, 1881: 40). The issue of the Kazakhs' gravestones was considered in the work of L. Berg and P. Ignatov (1901) mentioned above, and in the article of V. K. Shne (1894).

We find brief but capacious descriptions of the burial rite of the Kazakhs in the eastern part of Kazakhstan in the notes of the exiled Pole A. Yanushkevich: “The Kyrgyz (Kazakh. – B. S.) funerals are short. As soon as the Kirghiz dies, the women raise a terrible scream in the yurt. Then they try to wash it as soon as possible, wrap it in a white cotton shroud (it cannot be made into linen), usually bought in advance in Bukhara, and carry it to a shallow grave. Here the body with arms extended along the body is placed in the grave and, covered with tree branches or grass, cover with ground” (Янушкевич, 1966: 137).

The peculiarities of the funeral rite of the Kazakhs in the south-eastern part of Kazakhstan were considered in the article of N. L. Zeland“Kirghiz. Ethnological feature article” (1885). In it he draws attention to some aspects of the traditional culture of the Kazakhs, related to our topic. In particular, speaking of the burial rite, N. L. Zeland notes the following: “Respect for the burial places of the Kirghiz (Kazakhs. – B.S.) attains the degree of religious worship”, and describing mourning for the death of a person, he drew attention to such a feature when “men do not shave their heads for 40 days” (Зеланд, 1885: 32).

The ethnography of the Kazakhs in the south-eastern part of Kazakhstan is also devoted to a thorough article by the researcher F. V.Poyarkov, “From the Region of Kyrgyz Beliefs” (1891), which was published in two parts. But here the author considers the spiritual component of the traditional culture of the Kazakhs. In particular, he speaks about the sustainability of ideas about “the souls of ancestors” (aruak) and notes the following: “There was no example that the Kyrgyz (Kazakh. – B.S.) would not keep the word or promise when he swears by Arvak” (Поярков, 1891, Ч. I: 26).

By the end of the XIX century, publications appear in which information on the ethnography of the peoples of Russia was summarized. In 1885, the tenth volume of the “Picturesque Russia” publication entitled “Russian Central Asia” was published, in which N. V. Latkin's essay “The Small and Middle Kyrgyz Horde” was published (Латкин, 1885: 199). In it, the author reviewed the burial rite of the Kazakh population of the western, northern, eastern and northern parts of the territory of Kazakhstan. A significant place in this essay is devoted to the description of the commemoration. N. V. Latkin identifies two ways of burial of the dead: soil, when the deceased is buried in the ground below the surface and ground, when “the deceased is not buried in the ground, but put in a room made inside a specially built mosque, usually built over the ashes of the progenitors” (Латкин, 1885: 199). Speaking about the time during which the deceased is buried, N. V. Latkin notes that in some cases the Kazakhs “hide the body in a secluded place, and the funeral is postponed until spring” (Ibid. P. 199).

In 1898–1914 edited by P. P. Semenov-Tien-Shansky and V. I. Lamansky, a multi-volume publication “Russia: A Complete Geographical Description of Our Fatherland” was published, each volume of which was dedicated to a specific “natural, cultural and historical area”. From the whole series “Russia ...” eleven volumes were published, including the eighteenth – “The Kyrgyz Region” (1903) and the nineteenth “Turkestan Region” (1913), written by local historians. In the “Kyrgyz region” considered the western, central, eastern and northern, and in the “Turkestan region” – the southern, the territory of modern Kazakhstan. In these editions general and brief descriptions of the burial rite of the Kazakhs in these areas were given. In particular, it was noted, “for the graves, prominent and crowded places are chosen along the main roads and without fail on a hill, hill or mountain; this expresses honor to the dead ” (Россия…, 1903: 202). In addition, the question of the relationship between Islamic and pre-Islamic beliefs in the field of spiritual culture of the Kazakhs, the place of Islam in the life of the Kazakhs in general was considered. It was noted that “Kyrgyz (Kazakhs. – B.S.) profess Islam ... but rather are indifferent to their religion, but at the same time it was said that “Christianity is grafted on to Kyrgyz (Kazakhs. - B. C.) very tight; the activities of the Semipalatinsk and Turgai Kyrgyz (Kazakh. – B. S.) missions did not bring noticeable results; some success has been the preaching only among the poor (jetak and baigush), for whom purely material calculations are not the last among the motivators for the adoption of Christianity; cases of reverse transition to Mohammedanism are not uncommon” (Россия…, 1903: 220–222).

In the post-revolutionary period, Soviet researchers studied the ethnography of the peoples of Central Asia, including the Kazakhs. In the late 1920s. an article was published by A. M. Balaubaeva-Golyakhovskaya “Funerary rites of the Kazahs of the Akmola province” (1928), in which the funeral rite of the Kazakhs was described “from the city of Akmola to the r. Chu” (Балаубаева-Голяховская, 1928: 17), that is, the central regions of Kazakhstan. This work is quite informative, it highlights the actions taken after the death of a person by his relatives; the issue of the device of the grave is also given the text of one of the funeral laments (Балаубаева-Голяховская, 1928: 17–30). This work is valuable primarily for its actual data, the author does not draw any conclusions.

In subsequent years, the study of the funeral rite of the Kazakhs virtually ceased. Considering the issue of studying the ethnography of the peoples of Kazakhstan, I. V. Zakharova characterizes the period of the 1930s as a “sharp decline, almost failure” (Захарова, 1998: 17). She explains this with a wave of repression that has affected the traditional culture of the Kazakhs. Serious advances have occurred only since the mid-1950s. I.V. Zakharovawrites: “From now on, the possibility of a freer choice of topics appears, ethnographers are moving to an in-depth collection of materials and to their objective interpretation” (Захарова, 1998: 17). The study of traditional Kazakh culture of Kazakhstan was conducted by Soviet researchers based on a uniform methodology, which was expressed in an integrated approach to such studies.

The official religion of the Kazakh ethnos, including the part that is located on the territory of the Omsk Region, is Islam. Accordingly, the representations associated with the Muslim religion are reflected in the burial rite of the Kazakhs. At the same time, a significant place in the burial rite is occupied by archaic ideas, which find their analogies in the worldview of many peoples, neither religiously nor linguistically, not close to the Kazakhs. Therefore, this issue was considered in the works of domestic researchers. So, in the late 1950s. V. V. Vostrov published his work “On the question of the remnants of the ancient beliefs among the Kazakhs” (1959). In it, the author examines the process of spreading Islam in the territory of modern Kazakhstan and its influence on the burial rite of the Kazakhs. According to the author, Islam begins to penetrate into the territory of Kazakhstan from the 8th century. In the XVI – XVII centuries. there is its further distribution in the designated area. V. V. Vostrov suggests that “it was during this period that burials with inventory, under the influence of the strengthening of the Muslim religion, were finally ousted from the burial rites of the Kazakhs” (Востров, 1959: 56).

The question of the spread of Islam in Central Asia and Siberia aroused interest not only from domestic but also from foreign researchers. In particular, this issue was considered in the article of the Turkish researcher Abdülkadir İnan “The spread of Islam in Siberia” (“Sibirya'da İslamiyetin Yayılışı”) (1968).

A. Inan identifies two periods in the process of the spread of Islam in Central Asia, Kazakhstan and Western Siberia. By the beginning of the XIII century. Islam established itself in the southern southeastern parts of the territory of modern Kazakhstan. The next stage in the spread of Islam, he attributes to the period after the Mongol conquests.

The formation of a strong state under the rule of the Mongols and the expansion of trade relations within it contributed to the intensification of the activities of Islam propagandists called Murshids. A. Inan notes: “Since freedom of conscience (vicdanhürriyeti) existed in the Mongolian state in the full sense of the word, no one obstructed the activities of these murshids” (İnan, 1968: 333). In the end, disagreeing with the views of G. F. Miller and V. V. Radlov, who attributed the spread of Islam in Western Siberia to the time of the rule of Khan Kuchum, A. Inan concludes that “Western Siberia was Islamized long before Khan Kuchum” (Ibid, 335). A. Inanwrites: “From the beginning of the XIX century. In most cities of Siberia, the construction of cathedral mosques (cami) or mosques-schools (mescit-mektep) continued. Many cities of Siberia were spoken of as Islamic cities. Troitsk (Troysk), in which there were six cathedral mosques and six madrasas; Kyzylzhar (Kızılcаr) with six mosques and six madrasas and Semey (Simey) with five mosques and five madrasas became Islamic cities. Large and beautiful cathedral mosques were built in such major administrative centers of Siberia as Tomsk and Omsk.” (Ibid, 337). At the same time, A. İnan spends the idea that the spread of any religion, in particular, Islam, is a complex and lengthy process. Thus, he notes that “people who converted to Islam and those associated with it could not abandon the ancient customs and certain rituals” (Ibid, 336).The studies of Soviet scientists in the field of ethnography of the peoples of Central Asia were crowned with a graduation in the early 1960s. the editions “Peoples of Central Asia and Kazakhstan” (1963), in which the essays on the ethnography of the Kazakhs were also placed. In particular, the process of spreading Islam through the territory of Kazakhstan was considered. It is noted that after the accession of Kazakhstan to Russia, the influence of Islam among the Kazakh population began to increase. In addition, the publication reviewed the characteristic features of the Kazakhs' funeral rite. Thus, in the sphere of spiritual culture, the steady preservation of the cult of deceased ancestors is noted, which found its expression in the careful guarding of the graves of the ancestors and in respect for them (Народы Средней Азии…, 1963: 345–346, 436–437).

In 1991, the work of A.T. Toleubaev, “Relicts of Pre-Muslim Beliefs in the Family Rituals of the Kazakhs”, was published (1991), which is one of the most comprehensive works on the spiritual component of the traditional culture of the Kazakh people. Of interest is the study of the semantics of memorial dates. Note that in this monograph various aspects of not only the burial rite, but also other aspects of culture are touched upon.

In the early 1990s. a monography by the prominent researcher R. M. Mustafina, “Representations, Cults, and Rituals of the Kazakhs (in the context of everyday Islam in South Kazakhstan)” (1992) was published. This work is interesting primarily because the author explores the degree of penetration of Islam into the traditional culture of the population studied by him(her), including the burial rite. Speaking of the custom of mourning the deceased and the existence on this occasion of the funeral lamentations, R.M. Mustafina notes a certain influence of Islam on the content of the texts of such lamentations. In addition, describing the “jyrtys” rite, which is held at the cemetery on the day of the funeral, and noting that it ended with wishes for the people of a long life, the author draws attention to the fact that the Prophet Mohammed was often mentioned in this connection (Мустафина, 1992). A major achievement of the modern ethnographic science of Kazakhstan is the fundamental work of the Kazakh researcher S. I. Adzhigaliyev (S. E. Ajigali) “The Genesis of Funeral-Religious Architecture of Western Kazakhstan (based on the study of small forms)” (1994). In this exceptionally complete book, the author, on the basis of an extensive range of sources, shows the genesis of various elements of the cult-burial monuments of Western Kazakhstan in connection with the ethnic history of the population of the territory he studied, carried out a typology of the burial-cult structures of the Kazakhs. The author has put forward various provisions by examples from the ethnography of various ethnic communities.

Note that S. E. Ajigali was written and a few works on the funeral rite of the Kazakhs of the south-eastern regions of Kazakhstan. In the article “The main features of the funeral commemoration rites of the Kazakhs Jeyisu” (1992), In addition to describing the complex for the burial of the deceased, the author has also investigated some options for the time of the commemoration and noted the disappearance of several elements that existed previously in the burial rite (Аджигалиев, 1992: 94–109).

Acknowledgement: Thus, it can be said that the funeral rite of the Kazakh population of Kazakhstan was studied quite well by the end of the 19th century, which was reflected in some generalizing works that were published at that time. The works were to a certain extent general in nature (besides, in some cases the place of gathering information was not indicated). However, the burial rite of the Kazakhs of all the main regions of Kazakhstan was presented, although to varying degrees.

Список литературы

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Б.Смағұлов,

ҚР БҒМ ҒК Ш. Уәлиханов атындағы Тарих және этнология институты Этнология және антропология бөлімінің ғылыми қызметкері, тарих ғылымдарының кандидаты, доцент. Алматы қ.

XIX – XX ҒАСЫРЛАРДАҒЫ ҚАЗАҚСТАН ЖӘНЕ ОМБЫ ОБЛЫСЫ ҚАЗАҚТАРЫ МӘЙІТТІ ЖЕРЛЕУ САЛТ-ДӘСТҮРЛЕРІНІҢ ЗЕРТТЕЛУІ

ТҮЙІН

Мақала көрсетілген мерзім аралығындағы Қазақстан және Омбы облысы қазақтары мәйітті жерлеу салт-дәстүрлерінің зерттелуіне арналған. Мақалада ресей және қазақ зерттеушілерінің біздің тақырыбымызға қатысы бар еңбектеріне талдау жасалған. Қазақстан аумағындағы мен Омбы облысының оңтүстігіндегі мәйітті жерлеу салт-дәстүрлері зерттелуінің ерекшеліктері қаралады. Еңбекте өлкетанушылардың Омбы облысы қазақтары зират кешендерінің жекелеген қырларын, дәлірек айтқанда, зираттардың планиграфиясын, адамның зират басында болуына қатысты тыйымдарды зерттеуге қосқан үлесі көрсетілді.

Түйін сөздер: дәстүрлі мәдениет, зират, мәйітті жерлеу салты, Омбы, қазақтар.

Б. Смагулов1

кандидат исторических наук, доцент, научный сотрудник Отдела этнологии и антропологии Института истории и этнологии.  г. Алматы, Казахстан.

ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ПОГРЕБАЛЬНОГО ОБРЯДА КАЗАХОВ КАЗАХСТАНА И ОМСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ В XIXXX ВВ.

Резюме

Статья посвящена изучению погребального обряда казахов Омской области и Казахстана в указанный период времени. В статье анализируются труды российских и казахских исследователей, имеющие отношение к нашей теме. Рассматриваются особенности исследования погребального обряда в различных регионах Казахстана и юга Омской области. В работе также показана роль краеведов в изучении отдельных сторон погребальных комплексов казахов Омской области, в частности, планиграфии кладбищ, запретов, связанных с пребыванием на территории кладбища.

Ключевые слова: традиционная культура, кладбище, похоронный обряд, Омск, казахи.

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