The global influence of
the Arab countries on the world economy and interest from the world community
is due primarily to the presence of significant reserves of natural mineral raw
materials in the region, the resources of this region can meet the growing
demand for energy raw materials in world markets.
Arab companies and investment funds are looking for new markets to use their money. At present, Kazakhstan is in the zone of their interests. Arab businessmen already finance construction, invest in hotel business, technology, communications, construction industry, banking assets.
Kazakhstan has the opportunity to expand its presence in the region and the markets of North Africa and the Arab countries of the Gulf:
Between the economies of Kazakhstan and the countries of the Gulf, many common tasks are to diversify the economy and escape from commodity dependence. In this direction, considerable efforts have been made in the Arab region at the moment, and more than 60 percent of the economy today is a non-primary sector. In recent years, the construction industry, the development of communications, information technology and the banking sector have become noticeably brisk.
The countries of
the Gulf, which have the largest
hydrocarbon reserves, are not exclusively suppliers of raw materials. It can
not be said that the share of oil and gas in the structure of production and
exports of individual countries is dominant. For example, the UAE has the most
diversified structure of the economy. According to IMF experts, 70% of GDP and
about 50% of UAE exports are not related to the extraction and processing of
energy resources. In Qatar and Kuwait, the share of the non-power sector in
production and exports is 50% and 52% respectively, and in exports 9% and 25%,
Arabs aspire to Kazakhstan, they, like Kazakhstan, are interested in investment opportunities, issues of bilateral relations, the situation in the Middle East region and other international topics.
Today, the Republic of
Kazakhstan, still depends on foreign investment to increase the volume of
hydrocarbon exploration, development and production organization in large
fields. Kazakhstan plans to establish two large private equity funds with
partners from the UAE and Bahrain.
In recent years, Arab countries are very active in Kazakhstan at large petrochemical facilities. Saudi Arabia offers not only its investments in Kazakhstan, but also is ready to promote their attraction from other countries of the Arab world. There is great potential for cooperation in agriculture, transport and tourism.
In this situation, the
strengthening of economic cooperation with the countries of the Arab region is
promising and mutually beneficial, creates prerequisites for diversifying the
economy and foreign economic relations, optimizing foreign trade relations in
the region, expanding economic influence and ensuring the stability of the
national economic system as a whole.
At the present stage, the countries of the Middle and Middle East have a powerful political, business and intellectual potential. In the international energy balance system, the countries of this region occupy a special place, which allowed them to create the largest financial and economic centers that exert a significant influence on the geopolitical alignment of forces in the modern world.
Since gaining independence, Kazakhstan has sought to establish friendly relations with the countries of the Middle and Middle East, demonstrating intentions for the closest interaction. Kazakhstan sees them as promising partners in economic, political and cultural terms, as all necessary preconditions and conditions for mutual understanding and cooperation have been formed between the RK and the states of these regions. The process of establishing diplomatic relations between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the countries of the Middle and Middle East covered the time span of 1992-1999.One of the key positions in the political and economic life of the Middle East is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which is the largest exporter of energy resources and the custodian of the shrines of the Islamic religion.
Bilateral cooperation between Kazakhstan and Saudi Arabia in the trade and economic sector has considerable potential. It should be noted that KSA has impressive investment opportunities and shows interest in implementing large infrastructure projects in Kazakhstan. In addition, the leaders of the two countries are trying to create optimal conditions for establishing active contacts between the business circles of Kazakhstan and the KSA in the sphere of trade and finance.
Kazakhstan's relations with the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are developing dynamically and fruitfully. It should be noted that for Kazakhstan, the UAE is one of the most promising partners among the countries of the Arab East. Significant investment opportunities allow Abu Dhabi to finance the construction of various complexes and projects on the territory of Kazakhstan, including Aktau-City in the Caspian and Abu Dhabi Plaza in Astana. Proceeding from this, the RK is in favor of intensifying interstate cooperation, as well as increasing contacts between the entrepreneurs of the two countries.
Relations between Kazakhstan and the State of Qatar also contribute to strengthening of investment cooperation of the RK with the countries of the Gulf. Having signed a joint communiqué in July 1993, Kazakhstan and Qatar officially established diplomatic relations.
During the official visits of President N. Nazarbayev to Qatar in 1998 and 2007, as well as the return visit of Emir Qatar to Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani to Astana in 1999, the leaders of the two states discussed the strengthening of bilateral agreements and the possibility of developing economic and cultural- Humanitarian cooperation.
It should be noted that Doha attaches great importance to the development of relations with Astana and encourages the private sector of Qatar to interact with Kazakhstani partners. To date, the ROK and Qatar are striving to give new impetus to interstate relations, expanding cooperation in such areas as oil and gas, education, health, agriculture, tourism and sport. In its relations with the countries of the Middle and Middle East, the Republic of Kazakhstan aims to develop a permanent dialogue and regular consultations on a wide range of international and regional issues. At the same time, it should be noted that the activation of Astana's cooperation with Muslim states meets the long-term interests of the RK and is one of the priorities of the country's foreign policy .
The countries of the Islamic world perceive Kazakhstan as a reliable partner and leader in the Central Asian region, considering the ROK as an inseparable part of the Muslim community. This is why the countries of the Arab East welcome Kazakhstan's participation in such structures as the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Islamic Development Bank, and also provide comprehensive support to the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Kazakhstan on convening CICA, the Congress of World and Traditional Religions, and the holding of a dialogue in the format "Muslim World-West."
Realization of large investment projects - in energy, infrastructure, tourism, food sector, banking, metallurgy and other sectors - will raise the relationship between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the countries of the Middle and Middle East to a new level.
In recent years, Iran has made serious efforts to establish and expand trade and economic relations with the states of Central Asia. It is obvious, for example, that the closest way for the commodity flows of the Central Asian republics and Afghanistan to the European and Asian markets lies through the territory of the Islamic Republic of Iran and then to Turkey or to the coast of the Gulf, which allows these countries, despite the US opposition, Commodity supplies through the territory of Iran [2, 24].
The largest trade and economic partner of Iran in Central Asia is Kazakhstan. Today hundreds of Iranian companies operate in Kazakhstan, trade and industrial exhibitions that advertise Iranian goods are held constantly. In the Kazakh stores are sold Iranian clothing, food, building materials, oil products. Kazakhstan exports livestock products and raw materials to Iran. At the same time, the main item of Kazakh exports is crude oil, which, in the amount of approximately 1 million tons, is transported to the ports of Iran in the Caspian Sea by the SWAP system, with subsequent delivery to local oil refineries. In return, Kazakhstan receives a similar amount of oil, but already in the ports of the Gulf for further transportation to world markets [3,36]. At present, the competent authorities of the two countries are working on the idea of laying a direct pipeline from Kazakhstan to Iran through the territory of Turkmenistan. It is clear that if this idea is realized, the supply of Kazakh oil to Iran will increase substantially and Kazakhstan will be able to sell its oil in the rapidly developing markets of India and East Asia. At the same time, it should be noted that already today Kazakhstan has a positive balance in trade with its Iranian partner.
Today, the nature of the most acute conflicts in the Arab East and the basic parameters for their settlement are to a large extent determined by Iran's policy in this strategically important region of the world. Regardless of the nature of the political regime in Iran, Tehran has traditionally sought to consolidate its positions in the Arab East, based primarily on purely pragmatic considerations for ensuring its national interests and national security.
In the context of aggravation of religious confrontation in the Middle East, Arab states with the majority of Sunni population fear Tehran's opportunities to directly engage in dialogue with the Shiite minority in their territories and related organizations. This is especially dangerous in the conditions of the rise of the Shiite movement in the Arab countries after the overthrow of the regime of S. Hussein in Iraq. Satisfied with a previously subordinate position in public and political life, today the Shiite communities seek to gain access to the governance of the state following the example of Iraq, where the Shiites occupy a leading position. But Shiite communities in the Arab countries will succeed only with the support of Iran. It was this circumstance that dictated the recent appeals of the Egyptian President H. Mubarak to the loyalty of the Shiite organizations in the Arab countries to the local authorities [4,12].
The difference between the Shiite minority and the Sunni majority in the Arab world is an important element determining the relations of the Arabs and the Iranians today. Confessional contradictions in the region have always served as a tool for provoking political conflicts between the Arab countries and Iran. With regard to the Shiite communities, Iran pursues a policy of rallying them around Tehran in order to ensure its foreign policy, as well as the solution of energy tasks. This, above all, concerns the Shiites of Iraq, Lebanon, Arab monarchies of the Gulf, Afghanistan, Yemen and Azerbaijan. It is characteristic that it is on the territory of these countries, where the percentage of Shiites is quite large, are one of the world's largest hydrocarbon reserves. These are the districts of Khuzistan, the Caspian, Basra, Azerbaijan, El-Hassa, and Bahrain. The priority task of the Islamic Republic of Iran is to unite the Shiite population under the aegis of Iran. Today Shiites in this region make up about 11% of all Muslims. But Iran alone is unlikely to manage to lead in these areas, and especially in the Gulf, so it seeks to acquire allies from the Arab countries, and above all, it is Syria and Iraq [5,11]
The leaders of Saudi Arabia, Egypt, who consider themselves and their countries as the main players in the region, regard Iran's Middle East policy as a threat to its influence and stability in the Arab East, express particular concern about the active policy of Iran in the region. The countries of the GCC together with Egypt and Jordan are trying to create a common military shield against Iran, especially in conditions of weakening of Iraq.
Iran's activities in the Middle East are determined by a number of important factors that have a significant impact on its foreign policy. This is Iran's support for the Shiite organization Hezbollah, which he uses to strengthen his influence in Lebanon and as a deterrent to Israel. Iran is involved in the inter-Palestinian and Palestinian-Israeli conflicts. The Palestinian problem is one of the key places in the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iran provides assistance and support to the Palestinian "Hamas". Iran's influence on the events in Iraq has expanded due to its relationship with the Shiite community in that country. The Iranian leadership is satisfied with the victory in the elections in Iraq of the Shiite majority. It stands for the preservation of the current regime of power in Iraq, hoping, thus, to strengthen there the dominant positions of the Shiite forces. Iran has significantly expanded its ties with Syria in various areas and actually achieved a strategic alliance with that country. Noteworthy in this regard is the visit of Iranian President Ahmedinejad to Damascus in July 2007. An important goal of the talks was the development of joint actions in response to US attempts to isolate both countries in the international arena. A special concern of the Syrian and Iranian leadership is the situation in Lebanon associated with the presidential elections.
The confrontation between the government and parliamentary majority not only did not ease after the war with Israel in the summer of 2006, but even more intensified as the uncertainty over the long months about the choice of the president of the country grew. Ahmadinejad's visit to the UAR in 2007, his talks with Bashar Assad and meetings with the leadership of Lebanon's Hezbollah and Palestinian Hamas overturned all the calculations that Damascus could start withdrawing from Iran or could weaken the level of its relations with Tehran. 3 Similar considerations have been expressed in a number of publications by the United States and Israel, as well as Saudi Arabia and Egypt, which have made great efforts to destroy this alliance [6,13].
Therefore, to date, Iran's relations with its Arab neighbors remain quite tense. And without significant concessions on both sides, one can hardly hope for their improvement. The Iranian leadership understands the whole danger of isolation from the Arab world. It is not by chance that the official Iranian representatives seek to establish relations with the Arabs. Iran is ready to help economically and politically the Iraqi leadership to prevent a split in the country. Ahmedinejad appealed to the Saudi monarch with a proposal to establish joint work to restore Iraq.
to become a party to the new post-war order in the Middle East. The Arab countries
could not fail to understand that, in the event of an attack by the United
States on Iran, the main part of the fighting could also come to the territory
of these countries. This can lead to serious destabilization of their domestic
political situation and cause a series of social revolutions and coups.
The conflict between Arabs and Iranians originates from the time of the Arab conquest of Iran in the middle of the 7th century, although before that the present Middle East was under the rule of the Iranian shahinshakhs for centuries. Islam in Iran was not propagated by preaching. The struggle of the Iranians against the Umayyad caliphate (661-750), and then Abbasid (750-1258), contributed to the spread of Shiism in Iran, which for many centuries was the national liberation movement of the Iranians against the Arab, Turkic and Mongolian domination, the result Which was the revival of the Iranian Empire under the Safavid dynasty (1501 - 1774). Safavid Shah Ismail I (1501-1524) proclaimed the Shiite sense of Islam as the state religion of Iran, which led to a war with the Sunni states of the Ottomans and Uzbeks in the west and east of Iran, respectively. Just from that time, the centuries-old conflict between Shiites and Sunnis begins.
The President of Kazakhstan spoke in favor of a dialogue between Tehran and the Arab countries. "Kazakhstan is convinced that the tension in Iran's relations with some Arab countries can be eliminated through dialogue," Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev said during an official visit to Tehran in April 2016.
1. Mukhamedzhanova D.SH. Arabskiy mir i Kazakhstan: perspektivy sblizheniya ekonomiki //http://2004-2010.iwep.kz/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=847&Itemid=63
2. Druzhilovskiy S.B. Politika IRI v Tsentral'noy Azii i Afganistane. Iran islamskiye strany. - Moskva 2009, 259 str.
3. Sanai, Mekhdi. Otnosheniya Irana s tsentral'noaziatskimi stranami SNG. -Moskva, «Muravey», 2002, s. 105.
4. Foreign Affairs. January/February, 2008. –Р 10-19.
5. Kulagina L.M. Akhmedov V.M. Iran i arabskiy Vostok Iran islamskiye strany. -Moskva 2009, 259 str.
6. Al'-Mukharir al'-arabiy., 01.01. 2008. –Р 15-24.
Заведующий отдела иранистики факультета востоковедения КазНУ имени аль-Фараби.
А. Дияб аль-Нуймат
Магистрант 1 курса факультета востоковедения КазНУ имени аль-Фараби.
РОЛЬ ИРАНА В ОТНОШЕНИЯХ КАЗАХСТАНА СО СТРАНАМИ ЗАЛИВА: ИСТОРИЧЕСКИЙ АНАЛИЗ
В статье рассматривается процесс установления и развития отношений между арабскими странами зоны Залива, входящими в интеграционную структуру ССАГПЗ, и Казахстаном, а также роль Ирана в этих отношениях. Анализируются факторы внутреннего и внешнего характера, оказывающие воздействие на двусторонние и многсторонные отношения.
Ключевые слова: Казахстан, Иран, арабские страны, Залив, Центральноазиатский регион, отношения, многосторонные сотрудничества.
әл-Фараби атындағы ҚазҰУ шығыстану факультетінің ирантану бөлімінің меңгерушісі
А. Дияб аль-Нуймат
әл-Фараби атындағы ҚазҰУ шығыстану факультетінің 1 курс магистранты
ИРАННЫҢ ҚАЗАҚСТАН МЕН ШЫҒАНАҚ ЕЛДЕРІМЕН ҚАРЫМ-ҚАТЫНАСЫНДАҒЫ РОЛІ
Мақалада Шығанақ елдері мен Қазақстан арасындағы қарым-қатынастардың жан-жақты дамуында, Шығанақ елдері ұйымы мүшелерімен Қазақстанның интеграциялық үрдістерге түсуіндегі Иранның ролі айшықталады. Қос жақты, көп жақты байланыстардағы ішкі және сыртқы факторлар талданады.
Kілт сөздер: Қазақстан, Иран, араб елдері, Шығанақ, орталық азия аймағы, қатынастар, көпжақты ынтымақтастық.