Introduction. The international community of states at the present stage of its development is faced with two seemingly contradictory trends: with ever-increasing globalization and cultural unification, on the one hand, and on the other – with the growth of national consciousness.
Natural consequence of these processes is the exacerbation of interethnic and interfaith contradictions. Therefore, in the modern world, one of the main conditions for maintaining social stability is the search for tools and mechanisms for maintaining intercultural dialogue. The analysis of the experience of multi-ethnic Kazakhstan, which has managed to avoid major conflicts on national grounds for almost thirty years of independence, can help to solve this task.
The basis of the model of interethnic and interfaith interaction created in the Republic of Kazakhstan was largely based on deeply rooted historical traditions that predetermined the ability of the Kazakh people to coexist and non-conflict perception of a different mentality and culture. It should be noted that the culture of nomadic people has always been distinguished from the cultures of traditionally sedentary peoples by their ability to adapt to new territorial conditions. In many ways, the steppe customs form the basis of the strategic course in the field of national policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Therefore, it is impossible to understand many modern realities of Kazakhstani life outside the historical context, including the emerging state model of relations between ethnic groups (Якушева, 2013: 157).
Active legislative activity in the field of interethnic relations in the late 1990s and early 2000s was accompanied by institutional content of state national policy. This task was carried out in parallel with changes in the political and power framework in the republic.
After the dissolution of the Supreme Council of Kazakhstan from March 1995 to January 1996, the entire legislative and Executive power was in the hands of the head of state in accordance with the law of December 10, 1993 adopted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan of the 12th convocation «On temporary delegation of additional powers to the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan and heads of local administrations» (Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 1993). The current situation has created opportunities for significant strengthening of the President's position in the political system of Kazakhstan.
Materials and methods. The methodology of research of interethnic relations is based on methods of analysis of the person included in the ethnic group. Degree of inclusion in people is very different and depends not only on the type of person, but also on cultural traditions and specific situations. If a person considers himself a Russian, Ukrainian, Tatar, or Lezgin, then by studying him as a person, one can understand the socio-perceptual images and other psychological realities that characterize interethnic relations in which he participates.
In the study of interethnic relations, socio-psychological theories, motivations, and theory of attitudes are used. Interethnic relations have always been studied in order to harmonize them, prevent discrimination, and regulate tensions and conflicts. Consequently, it is important to see in the theory of attitudes that will help to understand the causes of inter-ethnic tensions and find ways to overcome them.
Interethnic attitudes are attitudes toward negative or positive interaction with other ethnic communities with all nuances in any sphere of life and in any form - from personal communication with people of other nationalities to the perception of phenomena, elements of history, culture, types of socio-economic development of civilizational forms (Drobizheva, 2001: 167-180). Ethnic stereotypes and heterostereotypes as an element of identity and as an indicator of relationships are considered from different angles. In the study of ethnic self-identity, autostereotypes and their content are interesting, in the study of interethnic relations, heterostereotypes are interesting, and in the content of heterostereotypes it is the presence or absence of intellectual and business qualities. Ethnic attitudes fix the attitude to traditions, language, literature, to the type of communication - business, family, friendly, neighborly. However, if you need to find out the type of attitude towards contacts in general or the people, their culture, history, people, then the subject of study becomes the system of attitudes or orientation. Therefore, there is a difference between orientation to the ethno-national culture of a particular people and orientation to communication in general.
Discussion. One of the first steps in strengthening interethnic relations was the creation in 1995 of the Assembly of peoples of Kazakhstan (APK) as a consultative and advisory body under the President, designed to deal with issues of ensuring interethnic harmony in the republic. At the first stage of its existence, the Assembly played a significant role in the development of political processes in the country (Decree of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 1995). In 1995, the APK had to actually perform the functions of the highest representative body of the state. Following the results of the first two sessions, it was initiated to hold national referendums on the extension of the Presidential powers of N.A. Nazarbayev until 2000 and the adoption of a new Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Thus, the consolidating and stabilizing function of the APK in the political life of the country was declared.
Almost simultaneously with the formation of the APK, the new Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated August 30, 1995 introduced provisions defining the absence of the division of Kazakhstanis into representatives of the titular and non-titular ethnic groups, Kazakh was declared the state language, and Russian received the status of an official language used along with the state language (Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 1995). This allowed at the legislative level to eliminate the most obvious prerequisites for the possible occurrence of interethnic contradictions between the main ethnic groups of Kazakhstan - Kazakhs and Russians.
The creation of the Assembly marked not only the reformatting of the political system of Kazakhstan, but also an important stage in the institutionalization of state national policy (Якушева, 2010: 21).
The country's administration showed a noticeableexpression of its attention to issues of interethnic relations. However, certain shortcomings are observed in the sphere of ethno-national policy. The following arguments can be made in favor of this conclusion:
1. Lack of a clear conceptual and theoretical basis of ethno-national policy in Kazakhstan. At the official level, there is actually no definition and understanding of the essence of ethno-national policy, which does not contribute to its full implementation. It should be noted that in relation to issues of interethnic relations the term «national policy» is most often used in official terminology. Although it would be, correct to say «ethno-national policy» or «ethno-politics».
2. There is no corresponding legal formalization of the ethno-national policy. Currently, Kazakhstan does not have a clearly formulated and integrated concept or state program of ethno-national policy, which would be a system-forming, basic document that maximally reveals the main theoretical, conceptual and applied aspects of the implementation of this area of state activity (basic principles, goals, tasks, directions, mechanisms, etc.) and serves as a mandatory basis for making appropriate decisions and legal acts.
3. Lack of effective mechanisms for implementing ethno-national policies in the system of state power. In 1995-1997, such body was the State Committee for national policy. However, after its abolition, certain functions and powers of this body were transferred to the competence of other state bodies.
Currently, the Department of internal policy of the Presidential Administration, the Ministry of information and public development, the Department of internal policy of regional akimats, the cities of Nur-Sultan, Almaty and Shymkent are mainly involved in general issues in the field of interethnic relations.
However, such a distribution of functions and responsibility for the state of affairs in the field of interethnic relations between various state bodies in the absence of a single concept, strategy or program of action for the implementation of ethno-national policies does not seem effective. In particular, this contributes to the lack of clear coordination, inconsistency and unnecessary competition in the relevant activities of certain state bodies.
4. Unbalanced ethno-national policy. In its ethno-national policy, the state focuses on the implementation of actions in the following two main areas:
- resolving issues, mainly of an ideological and propagandistic nature, aimed at maintaining stability and harmony in the sphere of interethnic relations;
- providing conditions for the preservation and development of the Kazakh language and culture.
In this regard, the state and its bodies pay insufficient attention to solving specific problems of non-indigenous ethnic groups of the republic, including issues of their ethno-cultural and ethno-social development.
The complexity and ambiguity of the situation in the field of interethnic relations and ethno-national policy in Kazakhstan also reflect the results of a sociological study conducted by the center for topical studies «Alternative» with the assistance of the international Institute for regional studies «open society» in August 2008. In general, the state's policy in the field of interethnic relations is supported by the majority of the population. 86.4% of respondents rated it positively (Чеботарев, 2009: 59-67).
Active legislative activity in the field of interethnic relations in the late 1990s and early 2000s was accompanied by the strengthening of the role of the Assembly of people of Kazakhstan in the socio-political processes taking place in the Republic. Primarily, the formation of a single Kazakh nation continued at this stage. At the seventh session of the APK in December 2000, the President set the task of forming a civil community based on Kazakhstan's patriotism. In his report, N. A. Nazarbayev stated, «We have created Kazakhstan, and now the task is to create a Kazakhstan people». This task became one of the key directions of the APK Strategy adopted at the end of the IX session of the Assembly of people of Kazakhstan in 2000. The main goal of the APK Strategy was to increase the role of the Assembly of people of Kazakhstan in implementing the objectives of the Strategy «Kazakhstan-2030», strengthening stability and harmony in society and the process of forming the Kazakhstani people, its strong statehood, and open civil society.
The main principles of the APK strategy were defined as follows:
– priority of the interests of the people and the state;
– the rule of law and equality of human and civil rights and freedoms, regardless of their race, nationality, language, attitude to religion, membership in social groups;
– public stability as the basis for a fair solution of the national question, prevention and warning of actions, speeches and statements that can discredit the Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as hinder the normal functioning of the Assembly of people of Kazakhstan;
– comprehensive development of national cultures, languages and traditions of the Kazakhstani people;
– prevention of activities aimed at undermining the national security of the state, inciting social, national, tribal and religious discord, hatred or enmity;
– support of compatriots living in foreign countries in the preservation and development of their native language, culture and national traditions, strengthening their ties with the historical Homeland, assistance in protecting the rights and interests of citizens of Kazakhstan abroad;
– expansion of integration relations with international organizations and civil society institutions of foreign countries.
On June 28, 2006, the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan approved the Program for improving Kazakhstan's model of interethnic and interfaith harmony for 2006-2008. The program was aimed at a comprehensive system of measures to harmonize ethnic and religious relations, introduce principles and norms of tolerant behavior, prevent extremism and strengthen cooperation between state bodies, national-cultural, religious and non-governmental associations in promoting spiritual values and the culture of dialogue in order to ensure civil peace and social harmony. In 2007 in the Republic of Kazakhstan there was carried out the Constitutional reform, in result of which the Assembly of people of Kazakhstan received the right to elect deputies of the Majilis. In 2008, the Law «On the Assembly of people of Kazakhstan» was issued, which formed the legal instruments for ensuring the activities of this body and provided political recognition and the role of the APK in strengthening peace and harmony in the Republic. In virtue of steps taken in this direction, the Assembly of people of Kazakhstan has become a full-fledged subject of the country's political system (Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2008). In May 2010, an important step was taken towards the formation of a single Kazakhstan nation as a civil community – adoption of the Doctrine of national unity «based on the desire to create equal opportunities and decent living conditions for all citizens of Kazakhstan, recognition of the universal Declaration of human rights, awareness of responsibility for the fate of the nation, creation and strengthening of national statehood on the ancestral Kazakh land and other fundamental principles set forth in the Declaration on state sovereignty, the constitutional law on state Independence and the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan». The main objective of this document was to create conditions under which representatives of all ethnic groups and nationalities living in Kazakhstan will be able to overcome the dominant idea of national identity in their minds and feel like representatives of a single whole, which can be defined as the Kazakhstani nation. The formation of a common Kazakhstani identity should not detract from the significance of ethnic identity and sociocultural values of Kazakhs and other nations of Kazakhstan. These tasks define the structure of the Doctrine based on three principles:
- One country – one destiny,
- Equal opportunities
- Development of the national spirit.
Research results. Thus, during all the years of independence, the legal support of interethnic and interreligious relations has been the most important direction of the national policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Yakusheva, 2013: 164).
Studying the experience and problems of interethnic harmony in the Republic of Kazakhstan on specific materials in the conditions of renewal, reform, modernization of society allows us to make a number of practical recommendations and proposals to strengthen mutual respect, mutual understanding and mutual trust of nations, to develop a political culture of interethnic communication, aimed at improving ethnopolitics and practical nature for further research of the studied problem.
First, there was a need to create a department for interethnic and interfaith harmony at the Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the publication of the journal "CIS nations", which would publish studies on the problems of particularities of society consolidation, a culture of interethnic communication, etc.
Secondly, it is necessary systematically actively promote the best features of the life of the people of Kazakhstan in the world, using various forms of political work and mass media. In addition, the political elite should be active agents of scientific principles of national policy and interethnic harmony among the population of Kazakhstan. The solution of this problem requires further search for new forms, methods and means of formation and education of Kazakhstan's patriotism.
Third, it is necessary to study the political culture of communication between the ethnic groups of Kazakhstan, study the experience of a stable interethnic situation, and Kazakhstan's know-how in interethnic relations (Absattarov, history and activities of the APK as independent topics. Today, it is advisable to conduct a special course or optional class «Interethnic and interfaith harmony: the experience of Kazakhstan» in all educational institutions of Kazakhstan.
Fourth, it is advisable to establish an International Prize to award the best scientific, popular science works, works of literature and art, as well as state, political, religious figures and diplomats, journalists that contribute to the strengthening and development of friendship and cooperation of people, States, regions, continents and the formation of a high culture of interethnic and interfaith harmony of the population (Akpaeva, 2020).
Ethnonational policy should be based in the future on the study of the manageability potential and the development of self-organization mechanisms. Ideally, such a policy should address and effectively resolve potential conflict situations and create the most conflict-free space for social life.
Political tools for solving problems of interethnic relations must be supplemented with a pragmatic, managerial vision based on real and positive information in the sense of certainty. Each government program should calculate the ethnopolitical consequences of possible changes in the transformation of territories, industries and technologies. It is also necessary to take into account the influence of this or that information on the situation to which it relates.
In the process of implementing national policy, the main emphasis should be placed not so much on ideological, propaganda and political-administrative, but rather on research and information-analytical resources and mechanisms, including the development of their own, borrowing foreign and using appropriate tools.
Concerned central and local government authorities should initiate regular research in cooperation with various research organizations aimed at identifying and assessing the degree of manifestation of obvious and hidden sources of possible tension in the field of interethnic relations at the republican and, especially, at the local level. The results of the above-mentioned studies should form the basis of practical recommendations and proposals for the relevant state bodies to overcome and neutralize the manifestations and sources of possible tension in the sphere of interethnic relations.
It is also advisable to ensure the examination of both existing and upcoming legislative and subordinate legal acts of the Republic that regulate interethnic relations, language policy, religion and interfaith relations, education, culture, citizenship, migration policy, etc. are reviewed for the need to correct them in order to eliminate aspects that have a negative impact on the situation in the sphere of interethnic relations (Chebotarev, 2009: 67).
These components of the policy of interethnic harmony of the Republic of Kazakhstan are common to all types of interethnic harmony in the country and region. We consider the policy of interethnic consent of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the unity of its two sides: as part of the life policy of Kazakhstan's multinational society and as a characteristic of interpersonal friendly contacts caused by socio-political activities. In the first case, the policy of interethnic harmony is manifested as part of national policy when discussing issues related to the entire interethnic society as a whole. The second side of the policy of interethnic harmony in Kazakhstan is relations affecting various issues of national life, socio-political activities, as well as practical joint actions of Kazakhstanis representing public, personal, common Kazakhstani, and national interest mainly for them. Both sides of the policy of interethnic harmony in Kazakhstan are inseparable and are in constant interaction and development.
The Constitution of Kazakhstan protects political rights and interests of the different ethnic groups at the Parlamental level. In the framework of the constitutional reform in 2007, the deputies of the Assembly of the People in Kazakhstan have been elected for the first time to the Kazakhstan supreme authority, which the main goald was protect public interests. In ather words, the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan had become an important organization which protected the interests of ethnic groups in Kazakhstan. Under the auspices of the Assembly, there are 22 republican and regional ethnic-cultural centers which connect 470 regional, city and local organizations. Inorder to implement the Assemly's tasks regional branches - ethno-cultural associations took responsibility.
Ensuring interethnic harmony at the institutional level is performed by the Leader of the Nation Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev, head of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan.
State political activity strengthens due to cultural development, tolerance, interethnic and interfaith harmony. Some difficulties in the state regulation are explained by weak scientific and methodological support. However, Scientific Expert Council at the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan has been working on change the for the better sides.
There are more than 80 colleges, 108 secondary schools where representatives of 22 ethnic groups study and learn their own language. Also I they have an apportunity to learn languages extracircular in 76 secondary schools. There are 170 sunday language centers. The government finances funds for language schools 12 million tenge from the local budget every year. 30 textbooks were published, over 80 thousand copies. There are 19 republican and regional ethnicl print media, radio television programs and 6 state theaters. At the same time, our country is considered the only state iamong CIS where the activities of state ethnic theaters are financed by the republican budget.
The results of a sociological study carried out by the Center for the research «Alternative» reflected complexity and ambiguity of the interethnic relations issues in Kazakhstan. The aim of the Center is to promote the creation of a sustainable environment for the development of democratic relations, civil society and the market of analytical products in the Republic of Kazakhstan through the development and presentation of research results of these processes.
The main instruments for regulating interethnic relations should be the conducting of scientific theoretical and applied researches on socio-political relations, the study of the processes of interacting with foreign countries and international organizations. Development of alternative concepts and programs of social development with their subsequent submission for review to the general public and interested individuals. Distribution of books, brochures, newsletters and other printed materials concerning positive results of interethnic policy. Conducting scientific and practical conferences, seminars, round tables, press conferences, lectures, discussions on Kazakhstans interethnic development isuues.
Conclusions. Thus, the policy of interethnic consent of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a complex political phenomenon that covers all aspects of the activities of people of Kazakhstan; it is one of the most important components in the structure of its general policy. In this regard, it should be emphasized that the independence of each ethnic group in Kazakhstan is determined by the difference in their historical and political development, both in terms of socio-economic, and in terms of their state definition. It is important to understand that ignoring such ethnic variability, the richness of forms of development of nations, the lack of respect for historical and cultural traditions and the demands of ethnic groups lead to deformations in interethnic communication. In contrast, consideration of such features, mutual respect and attention to the interests and needs of different nationsalities, which form the basis of the humanistic tradition of communication and consent, should become the foundation of the policy of interethnic harmony as a concrete expression of the development of its subjects and the subjective nature of relations between different people, ethnic groups and their representatives (Dakenov, Akpaeva, 2020).
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А.С. Уалтаева¹,Ш.Б. Бидахметова²
¹Ш.Ш. Уәлиханов атындағы Тарих және этнология институтының жетекші ғылыми қызметкері. Қазақстан, Алматы қ.
²Әл-Фараби атындағы ҚазҰУ магистранты. Қазақстан, Алматы қ.
Аннотация. Әлеуметтік-этикалық қоғамның өзара байланысы мен даму мәселелері қоғамдық жағдайда өте өзекті болып табылады. Қазіргі кезеңдегі этносаралық және конфессияаралық келісім мәселесін зерттеу ерекше назар аударуды қажет етеді.
Бұл мақалада авторлар елдегі тұрақтылық пен қауіпсіздікті сақтаудың маңызды шарты болып табылатын әртүрлі этникалық топтардың бейбіт өмір сүруін қамтамасыз етудің мәселелері мен құралдарына назар аударады. Әр түрлі этникалық топтар мен діндердің арасындағы сенімсіздік ұлттық үстемдік пен діни экстремизм идеяларын қалыптастыруға және таратуға негіз жасайды, өзара араздық пен ұлтаралық қақтығыстардың пайда болуының алғышарты болып табылады. Сонымен бірге, этноұлттық саясатты іске асыру үшін бірыңғай тұжырымдама, стратегия немесе іс-қимыл бағдарламасы болмаған кезде әртүрлі мемлекеттік органдар арасындағы этносаралық қатынастар саласындағы функциялардың және жауапкершіліктің мұндай бөлінуі тиімді болып көрінбейді. Атап айтқанда, бұл әртүрлі мемлекеттік органдардың тиісті қызметінде нақты үйлестірудің, сәйкессіздік пен қажетсіз бәсекелестіктің пайда болуына ықпал етеді.
Түйін сөздер: Қазақстан халқы Ассамблеясы, этнос, конфессия, көпұлтты саясат, Конституция, ұлттық саясат.
ПУТИ СОВЕРШЕНСТВОВАНИЯ МЕЖЭТНИЧЕСКИХ ИНСТИТУЦИОНАЛЬНЫХ МЕХАНИЗМОВ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ КАЗАХСТАН
А.С. Уатаева¹,Ш.Б.Бидахметова ²
¹Ведущий научный сотрудник Института истории и этнологии имени
Ч.Ч. Валиханова. Казахстан, г. Алматы.
²Магистрант КазНУ им. аль-Фараби. Казахстан, г. Алматы.
Аннотация. Проблема развития социально-этнических общностей и их взаимоотношения, является актуальной и сложной в общественной жизни. Особенно требует внимания изучение проблемы межэтнического и межконфессионального согласия на современном этапе.
В настоящей статье авторы затрагивают проблемы и инструменты обеспечения мирного сосуществования различных этносов, что является важнейшим условием сохранения стабильности и безопасности в стране. Недоверие между представителями различных этносов и вероисповеданий создает почву для формирования и распространения идей национального превосходства и религиозного экстремизма, предпосылки для возникновения взаимной вражды и межэтнических конфликтов. Вместе с тем подобное распределение функций и ответственности за положение дел в сфере межэтнических отношений между различными государственными органами при отсутствии единой концепции, стратегии или программы действий по реализации этнонациональной политики не представляется эффективным. В частности, это способствует отсутствию четкой координации, несогласованности и ненужной конкуренции в соответствующей деятельности тех или иных государственных органов.Ключевые слова: Ассамблея народа Казахстана, этнос, конфессия, многонациональная политика, Конституция, национальная политика.