Introduction. A key element in the formation of the authenticity of any ethnic group is language. Without development of the state language in all sectors of the country's social life, it is impossible to develop public consciousness. The status of the Kazakh language was legally defined, some legislative acts have been adopted. On July 11, 1997, the Law «On Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan» was enacted, according to article 4 of which the state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the Kazakh language, and Russian is the language of interethnic communication. Language policy in Kazakhstan, begun by the Soviet government in the 20s. The twentieth century originally was supposed to introduce the Kazakh language in office work. One of the main directions of the indigenous policy in Kazakhstan was the translation of office work into the Kazakh language and giving it the status of business communication.
Materials and methods. During the writing of the article, the principles of historicism, scientific objectivity, and integrity were used. Specific historical and problem-chronological research methods were applied. A scientific rethinking of the historical past is impossible without a concrete source analysis of both sources, already known and newly introduced into the scientific circulation. Records management forms a complex system of historical sources, created in the process of the apparatus management. The content of the documents and the specific composition of the documentation were determined by the functions of the institutions in which they arose. Several historians' works are devoted to the classification of sources. However, until now no classification schemes have been developed for dividing sources into types and groups. Therefore, the classification can be made in each case, based on the tasks set by the researcher, as well as from the complex of sources at his disposal, their volume, varieties and other features. New factual materials used in this work provide an opportunity to methodologically and theoretically comprehend and rethink and recognize the events of the studied period.
Discussion. Indigenization began from the first days of the creation of the KazASSR (Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic). In the report of KirCIK (Kyrgyz Central Executive Committee) "Approaching the activities of state apparatus to the indigenous population" for 1921-1924. It was noted: «In the first period of the activity of the Soviet authorities in Kazakhstan, the lower-level power apparatuses staffed by Russian workers who did not know the Kyrgyz language were not able to not only serve the needs of the indigenous (Kyrgyz) population, especially in volosts with a pure or predominant Kyrgyz population but also to introduce any activities of the Soviet power into the mass of this population». (Kulshanova, 2011: 36).
Results. One of the first official documents of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) Autonomous Republic was the Decree of the Council of People's Commissars on the use of Kyrgyz (Kazakh) and Russian languages in state institutions.
On February 2, 1921, the Council of People's Commissars of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) Autonomous the Soviet Socialist Republic adopted a decree on the use of the Kazakh and Russian languages in state institutions of the republic. According to the document, the use of two languages were introduced in the state institutions of the Semipalatinsk, Akmola, Orenburg-Turgai, Ural and Bukeev provinces, and the Adaevsk district, which constitutes the territory of the Kir (Kaz) ASSR (Kyrgyz/Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic), on an equal footing. From that moment on, all laws and regulatory acts «having a general fundamental character and emanating from the central and provincial authorities of the Kir (Kaz) SSR (Kyrgyz/Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic)» were to be published and published simultaneously in Russian and Kyrgyz. The decree of 1921 defined the principles of the functioning of two languages in the state authorities of the republic. Thus, the interaction of the central (RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic), which included the KirASSR) and provincial institutions of the republic, as well as the interaction of district authorities with the highest central and provincial institutions should have been in Russian. Clerical work in aul, rural, township councils, volost, village and district executive committees, revolutionary committees, and people's courts, their interaction with district authorities in localities with the Kyrgyz population should have been carried out in the Kyrgyz language, and localities with the Russian population in Russian. The inquiry and investigation in the Extraordinary Commission and the Revolution Tribunals were determined in the language of the persons involved in the case. In all other cases, paperwork in the institutions of the republic and correspondence between them had to be carried out in one of two languages, and the choice of language in each case was dictated by «considerations of expediency and practical benefit» (Lysenko, Lysenko, 2015: 136).
In fact, the actual implementation of the decree of 1921 began a year later. For example, the People’s Commissariat of Justice of the KirASSR planned to complete work on the organization of judicial investigative work in the Kyrgyz language by September 1, 1922. However, this work could not be completed on time. By this period, only a few forensic investigation stations were opened in volosts with a compact residence of the Kazakh population and several Kazakh branches at provincial courts. Unfortunately, the Kazakh language was not fully introduced in these courts. There were objective reasons for this, which state authorities had to face at the initial stage of the implementation of the law on introducing indigenous languages of the region into office work. As noted in the circular of the People’s Commissariat of Justice of the KASSR (Kazakh Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic) of July 11, 1923, the judicial officers lacked «practice in the preparation of all kinds of acts in court cases in the Kyrgyz language». There were certain difficulties in selecting professionally trained personnel from representatives of the local ethnic environment. Despite the urgency of introducing the decree of 1921, the translation of office work into the national language had certain difficulties, which were caused by a combination of factors, including the lack of trained employees, the lack of office work documentation in the Kazakh language, etc. Despite this, the chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the KASSR S.M. Mendeshev in his report at the II Congress of KASSR Soviets held on October 5, 1921, spoke about the significant successes of the republic in the field of public education. In his assessment, Mendeshev proceeded from the scope of activities that were carried out in this field in the republic, highlighting among them, among others, the publication of a series of decrees and orders by the KirCIK on transferring all education workers to the People's Commissariat of Education to work in their specialty, and developing relevant provisions on increasing the financing of the People’s Commissar of Education, developing a program to reorganize the organization of school education and a plan for universal education.
A tougher approach to the implementation of the task of indoctrination of personnel and the introduction of paperwork in the Kazakh language was given on November 22, 1923 by Decree of the Central Executive Committee of the KASSR No. 15 «On the introduction of paperwork in the Kyrgyz language».
In the implementation of the decisions of the All-Kyrgyz Congress of Soviets and decrees of the KirCIK and SNK (Council of People's Commissars):
a) recognition of the state languages in the territory of K[A]SSR of the Kyrgyz and Russian languages;
b) on the introduction of office work in state and public institutions and organizations, along with Russian and the Kyrgyz language; and
c) on the adoption and publication of decrees, instructions, circulars, binding decrees and other legislative and governmental acts in both languages, the KCIK (Kazakh Central Executive Committee) decided:
1. To introduce from January 1, 1924, the Kyrgyz language in office work in all Kyrgyz volosts of K[A]SSR and the following counties: Adaevsky, Turgai, Chelkarsky, Temirsky, Aktobe, and Irgiz Aktobe lips.; in all counties of Bukeevskaya province.; Dzhambeytinsky and Guryevsky - the Ural lips.; Karkaraly and Zaysan - Semipalatinsk lips.; Akmola, Atbasar and Charlyk - Akmola lips.Moreover, in counties with a mixed population, paperwork is conducted in parallel in Kyrgyz and Russian.
2. In all other districts and provinces of K[A]SSR, except the Orenburg lips. and its counties, records management in the Kyrgyz language is fully introduced no later than July 1, 1924, by which time the county and provincial bodies are obliged to adapt their apparatuses to parallel record-keeping in Kyrgyz and Russian.
Note. To instruct KirSNK (Kyrgyz Council of People's Commissars) to establish an accurate list of departments within two weeks that are not covered by Art. 1 and 2 of this decree and submit for approval by the Presidium of the KCIK.
3. From the date of the publication of this decree, all regional institutions should begin to adapt their apparatuses to parallel record keeping along with the Russian language and the Kyrgyz language, with the deadline for introducing the Kyrgyz language as of January 1, 1925.
4. To invite all people's commissariats and regional institutions to publish within three months the guiding laws in the Kyrgyz language related to the activities of each of them. And since January 1924, all draft decrees and resolutions to be approved by the legislative bodies must be presented simultaneously in two languages - in Kyrgyz and Russian.
5. To entrust the NK RKI (People's Commissariat of the Workers 'and Peasants' Inspection), with the participation of the commission for the introduction of clerical work in the Kyrgyz language at the KCIK, to develop samples and forms of clerical work on a volost scale no later than January 1, 1924, and to teach them places for leadership.
6. In special educational institutions and professional courses for the training of employees, as a compulsory subject to introduce the teaching of forms of paperwork.
7. To guide and direct work on the introduction of paperwork in the Kyrgyz language under the Kyrgyz Central Executive Committee and executive committees, create special commissions whose rights and obligations are determined by a special provision.
8. In the development of this decree, the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs) and the NKU (People's Commissariat of Justice) develop appropriate instructions that are to be submitted for approval by the KCIK. (Alimgazinov, 2017: 45-46).
This document determined the specific term for the introduction of the Kazakh language in office work - from January 1, 1924 - in all volosts of the KASSR and the following counties: Adaevsky, Turgai, Chelkarsky, Temir, Aktyubinsk and Irgiz Aktobe provinces; in all districts of Bukeyevsky province, Dzhampeytinsky and Guryevsky - the Urals province, Karkaraly, and Zaysansky - the Semipalatinsk province, Akmola, Atbasarsky and Charlyksky - Akmola provinces. Moreover, in counties with a mixed population, parallel paperwork was introduced in the Kyrgyz and Russian languages. In all other counties and provinces of the KASSR, except the Orenburg province and its districts, paperwork in the Kyrgyz language is introduced completely no later than July 1, 1924. In the regional institutions, work on the introduction of paperwork in two languages - Russian and Kazakh - had to be completed by January 1 1925. All the people's commissariats and regional institutions had to publish within three months the guiding laws in the Kazakh language related to the activities of each of them, and since January 1924 all draft decrees and decrees liable to the approval of the legislative bodies, are transmitted simultaneously in two languages - Kazakh and Russian. In special educational institutions and professional courses for the training of workers by the decree of the Central Executive Committee of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of 1923, teaching forms of paperwork was introduced as a compulsory subject.
After requests began to be received from the executive committees, Zh. Sadvokasov, Chairman of the Central Commission at the Central Executive Committee, officially clarified the integration of the Kazakh language. «There are requests from the Gubispolkom (Provincial executive committee) for clarification to which organs of the province the decision of the Grand Presidium of the Kazakh Central Executive Committee of 22/11-23 No. 43 on the introduction of the Kazakh language in the paperwork of the KSSR applies.
The Central Commission under the Kazakh Central Executive Committee hereby informs that the indicated decree of the Kazakh Central Executive Committee mainly provides for the need of bringing the sovapparat (Soviet staff) closer to the needs of the masses of the indigenous population of the Republic. The introduction of the Kazakh language is necessary for one reason so that the Kazakh applicant, visiting a Soviet institution, could state his request without resorting to outside help.
Therefore, in the interests of the above it’s necessary:
To fully introduce the Kazakh language in the paperwork of those institutions that can do this without damage to the case. Other bodies, such as the GPU (State Political Administration), the military department, the specific nature of which does not allow the full transition of paperwork into the local language, should fully adapt their apparatus for communication with the indigenous population by at least introducing several special posts of Kazakh workers.
In order to systematically carry out work on the introduction of the Kazakh language in the province, each Gubispolkom’s must urgently create a gubcommission (Provincial commission), which is obliged by a monthly information report to the Central Commission under the Kazakh Central Executive Committee about their work on the introduction of the Kazakh language». (Central State Archive. F. 774. Inv. 1. C. 27. L. 8).
In addition to the mass introduction of the Kazakh language in volosts through provincial and district commissions, to single out one volost in each county of the province with especially exemplary conduct of the Kazakh office work, as indicative cells in the introduction of the Kazakh language.
Pursuant to the aforementioned, the Central Commission hereby proposes to immediately determine personally the volosts by the number of counties in the province, which, in the opinion of the provincial and district commissions, should be highlighted as an indicative cell for a given county of the province, provided, of course, that this volost is currently the strongest to conduct the Kazakh language.
In the event that none of the volosts is sufficiently powerful in this work, it is necessary to immediately establish one volost with the predominant Kazakh population in the county and to exert all efforts to put the work there in the rush order to the proper height (Central State Archive. F. 774. Inv. 1. C. 24. L. 19).
On December 4, 1923, under the Presidium of the Kazakh Central Executive Committee, the Central Commission on record keeping in the Kazakh language was organized. The main areas of work of the commission were the «indoctrination» of the state apparatus - the nomination of indigenous workers who knew the Kazakh language and writing, as well as the work on studying the Kazakh language - the opening of permanent state courses on the Kazakh language by workers of the Soviet apparatus; instructor courses in Kazakh office work; courses for the preparation of office staff from the Kazakhs; the introduction of the Kazakh language as a compulsory subject in all educational institutions of the Kazakh ASSR. Also, the commission observed the transition of office work to the Kazakh language primarily in those districts in which the Kazakh population made up the vast majority (80-90%) and the partial transition to the Kazakh office work of the people's commissariats and other state institutions of republican significance (Kulshanova, 2011: 37).
From the moment the decree was issued, all laws and legal acts «having a general principle character and emanating from the central and provincial authorities of the Kir (Kaz) SSR» were to be published and published simultaneously in Russian and Kazakh.
At the same time, it was fully recognized that in these conditions, the translation of all office work completely into the Kazakh language seems impossible. The decree emphasized that all central, provincial, and district institutions of the republic conduct paperwork and are interconnected in Russian. At the grassroots level, in aul, village, village Soviets, volost, village and district executive committees, revolutionary committees and people's courts, correspondence with institutions of the republic and paperwork are conducted in localities with the Kazakh population in the Kazakh language, and localities with the Russian population in Russian. Inquiries and investigations in the emergency commission and the tribunals were conducted in the language of the persons involved. When conducting office work in other cases, the choice of language was dictated by "considerations of expediency and practical usefulness."
In 1923, the Executive Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of the Kazakh SSR, Zh. Sadvakasov, participated in the creation of the «Central Commission for the Introduction of the Kazakh Language in Record-Keeping» under the Kazakh Central Executive Committee and was appointed its first chairman. (Abzhanov Kh, Saduakas P, 2013: 39).
Emphasizing the importance of clerical work in the Kazakh language, Zh. Sadvakasov praised the introduction of the Kazakh language in clerical work as a historical event: «... It should be noted that the introduction of the Kazakh language in clerical work on an equal footing with Russian, as a completely new work, first appeared by the Government not only in the history of the Kazakh people, but, perhaps, in the history of Russia and Europe, in general - it opened up several prospects, opportunities, and most of all, and certainly presented difficulties, and therefore demanded and thorough research, study, and painstaking careful implementation» (Abzhanov, Saduakas, 2013: 41-42).
The Central Commission under the KCIK on the introduction of the Kazakh language, by striving to carry out the tasks assigned to it by the Regulation and the KCIK Decree of November 22, 1923, plans the following events for the current 1924:
I. The authority of the activities of the gubcommissions (Provincial Comissions), in introducing the Kazakh language into the clerical work of state, public institutions and organizations, for this establishes:
a) monthly submission by the gubcommissions to the Central Commission of comprehensive reports on its activities over the past month;
b) in accordance with the current work of the gubcommissions, they send to the commission copies of the minutes of their meetings, circulars and other materials which reflect the work of the commission.
1. In pursuance of § 1, the Central Commission at its next meetings hears monthly reports submitted by the gubcommissions and gubispolkoms (Provincial Executive Committees) on the conduct of the Kazakh language, as well as the minutes of the Commission in cases of special importance.
2. Considers and approves the work plans of the gubcommissions.
3. The Central Commission persistently monitors the steady and speedy fulfillment by the provinces of §§ 3 and 2 of the decree of the Kazakh language of November 22, 23, on the complete translation in the first half of the entire clerical work of Kazakh townships, districts and counties of the KSSR into the Kazakh language.
a) ascertains the degree to which the provinces fulfilled tasks on the transfer of documentation management of Kazakh townships of district and provincial apparatuses to Kazakh documentation management from January 1, 1924;
b) After July 1, 1924, it takes measures to fulfill the obligations laid on them § 1 and 2 of the Decree of the KCIK.
4. Date of practical instructions to the provincial commissions and GIKs (Provincial Executive Committees) on the introduction of the Kazakh language.
5. In addition to the mass introduction of the Kazakh language in townships, the Central Commission through provincial and district commissions allocates one township in each county as provincial, with especially exemplary conduct of the Kazakh documentation management as indicative cells in the introduction of the Kazakh language. At the same time, the demonstration units located in the provincial center are led by the gubcommissions, and in the districts by commissions.(Central State Archive. F. 774. Inv. 1. C. 24. L. 80).
Record keeping in Russian and Kazakh languages in the provincial bodies was introduced on July 1, 1924, in the people's commissariats and regional authorities on January 1, 1925. In line with the implementation of these resolutions, the publication in 1924 in Russian and Kazakh of the “Guidelines for clerical work in the executive committees ". All the people's commissariats and regional institutions needed to publish within three months the guidelines for their activities in the Kazakh language, and since January 1924 all draft decrees and resolutions to be approved should be presented in two languages - Russian and Kazakh simultaneously. The importance of translating office work into the Kazakh language was touched upon in a report presented at the IV Congress of Councils of the KASSR, Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the KASSR S. Mendeshev, who emphasized that conducting office work in Russian “entailed separation of the apparatus from the masses”.
Conclusion. Even though the policy of indigenization was one of the significant phenomena and was more or less resolved, by the end of the 20s of the 20th century it was not possible to translate paperwork into Kazakh. Zh. Sadvokasov in one of his instructions to the people's commissars described the shortcomings in the organization of document management:
“On the basis of the materials available at the Central Commission under the Central Executive Committee on the introduction of the Kazakh language in the document management of the KSSR, the materials show that some People’s Commissariats / such as the People’s Commissariat of Finance / are inclined directly without the knowledge of the Central Committee to give the Executive Committees certain instructions on the introduction of document management in the Provincial organs.
Given the fact that often the content of the instructions of the People's Commissariats contradicts the general direction adopted by the decree of the Central Executive Committee of November 22, 1923. And following the order of the Commission, as well as the fact that this phenomenon may serve as a brake on the introduction of Kazakh document management.
The Central Committee indicates to the People’s Commissariats that it is necessary to strictly coordinate their actions with the Commission in this respect.” (Central State Archive. F. 774. Inv. 1. C. 27. L. 10).
The experiments with Kazakh writing played a negative role: it was quickly transferred from Arabic to Latin, and resistance and the manifestation of chauvinism among Russian and Ukrainian managers, employees, party and Soviet workers were developed. Besides, serious successes were not consolidated, and shortcomings in solving this problem were not eliminated. All this made it difficult to introduce the Kazakh language in office work.
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ВВЕДЕНИЕ КАЗАХСКОГО ЯЗЫКА В ДЕЛОПРОИЗВОДСТВО: ПРОБЛЕМЫ И ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ
Жуматов Дархан Сабитулы¹
¹Докторант 1 курса КазНУ имени аль-Фараби
г. Алматы Казахстан.
Аннотация. В статье на основе выявленных источников рассматривается вопрос языковой политики Советской власти на территории Казахстана, которая являлось приоритетным направлением коренизации. Данная политика осуществлялась в рамках реализации социальной справедливости и самоидентичности народа. В ноябре 1917 г. Советом Народных Комиссаров был принят один из первых документов Советской власти – Декларация прав народов России,которая провозгласила четыре основных принципа национальной политики: равенство и суверенностьнародов России;право народов России насвободное самоопределениевплоть до отделения и образования самостоятельного государства;отмена всех и всяких национальных и национально-религиозных привилегий и ограничений;свободное развитиенациональных меньшинствиэтнографических групп, населяющих территорию России. Политика коренизации имела две основные задачи: во-первых она была направлена на формирование национальных кадров партийного и советского аппарата, которые являлись бы проводниками и исполнителями власти в регионе. Во-вторых коренизация сопровождалась введением казахского языка в делопроизводство, в образование, издания СМИ на местных языках. На основе собранной информации анализируется особенности, сложности и промежуточные итоги по введению казахского языка в делопроизводство в 20-х годах ХХ в.
Ключевые слова: казахский язык, делопроизводство, коренизация, декрет, центральная комиссия.
ІС ҚАҒАЗДАРЫН ЖҮРГІЗУДІ ҚАЗАҚ ТІЛІНЕ КӨШІРУ: МӘСЕЛЕЛЕРІ МЕН ЗАРДАПТАРЫ
Жұматов Дархан Сәбитұлы¹
¹ҚазҰУ-нің 8D02206 – Тарих мамандығының 1 курс докторанты.
Алматы қ., Қазақстан.
Аңдатпа. Мақала анықталған дерек көздеріне сүйене отырып, Кеңес билігінің Қазақстандағы іс қағаздарын жүргізудіжергіліктендіру науқанының басым бағыты ретінде қарастырылған. Кеңес билігінің Қазақстан жерінде жүргізген тілдік саясатының мәселелерін зерттеуге арналады. Бұл саясат әлеуметтік әділеттілік пен халықтың өзін-өзі тануын жүзеге асыру аясында жүргізілді. 1917 жылдың қарашасында Халық Комиссарлары Кеңесі Кеңес өкіметінің алғашқы құжаттарының бірі – Ресей халықтары құқықтарының Декларациясын қабылдады. Ресей халықтары құқықтарының Декларациясы ұлттық саясаттың төрт негізгі принципін жария етті. Олар: Ресей халықтарының теңдігі мен егемендігі; Ресей халықтарының өз бетінше өзін – өзі еркін анықтау құқығы, тіпті дербес мемлекеттің бөлінуіне және құрылуына дейін; барлық түрлі ұлттық және ұлттық-діни артықшылықтар мен шектеулердің жойылуы; Ресей аумағын мекендейтін аз ұлттар мен этнографиялық топтардың еркін дамуы. Жергіліктендіру саясаты негізгі екі міндеттен тұрды: біріншіден, бұл саясат болашақта аймақтағы билікті таратушы және атқарушы қызмет атқаратын партиялық және кеңестік аппараттың ұлттық кадрларын қалыптастыруға бағытталды. Екіншіден, жергіліктендіру науқаны қазақ тілінің іс-қағаздарды жүргізуге (кеңсе ісі), білім саласына, БАҚ құралдарын жергілікті тілде жүргізу ісіне енгізілуімен қатар жалғасты. Жиналған ақпарат негізінде ХХ ғасырдың 20-жылдарында кеңсе ісіне қазақ тілін енгізу ерекшеліктері, қиындықтары мен аралық нәтижелері талданады.Түйін сөздер: қазақ тілі, кеңсе жұмысы, жергіліктендіру, декрет, орталық комиссия.